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Annual to shrub, or non-green root parasite, often bristly or sharp-hairy. Stem: prostrate to erect. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, generally simple, generally alternate. Inflorescence: generally cymes, or panicle-, raceme-, head-, or spike-like, generally coiled in flower (often described as scorpioid), generally elongating in fruit, or flowers 1–2 per axil. Flower: bisexual, generally radial; sepals (4)5(10), fused at least at base, or free; corolla (4)5(10)-lobed, salverform, funnel-shaped, rotate, or bell-shaped, appendages 0 or 5 at top of tube, alternate stamens; stamens epipetalous; ovary superior, entire to 4-lobed, style 1(2), entire or 2-lobed or -branched. Fruit: valvate or circumscissile capsule or nutlets 1–4, free (fused), smooth to roughened, prickly or bristly or not.
± 120 genera, ± 2300 species: tropics, temperate, especially western North America, Mediterranean; some cultivated (Borago, Heliotropium, Echium, Myosotis, Nemophila, Phacelia, Symphytum). Many genera may be TOXIC from pyrrolizidine alkaloids or accumulated nitrates. [Olmstead et al. 2000 Molec Phylogen Evol 16:96–112] Recently treated to include Hydrophyllaceae, Lennoaceae. —Scientific Editors: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin, David J. Keil.
Key to Boraginaceae
Perennial herb; roots fleshy-fibrous or tuber-like, from rhizomes. Stem: erect, fleshy. Leaf: simple, pinnate-lobed, or compound, basal or cauline, alternate; petiole widened, clasping; leaflets toothed or lobed, hairy, generally paler abaxially. Inflorescence: generally branched, generally head-like cymes; pedicels generally elongate, recurved in fruit or not. Flower: calyx bell-shaped, lobes linear to lanceolate, acute to obtuse, glabrous or hairy, generally ciliate; corolla lobed to middle, > calyx, bell-shaped, lobes hairy; stamens equal, exserted, filaments hairy; ovary chamber 1, style 1, exserted, stigmas 2, base persistent. Fruit: capsule, 3–5 mm, spheric; tip generally bristly, loosely enclosed by calyx. Seed: 1–4, oblong to spheric, brown, net-like.Key to Hydrophyllum
8 species: North America. (Greek: water leaf) [Constance 1942 Amer Midl Naturalist 27:710–731]
Rhizome short. Stem: very short, spreading-hairy. Leaf: 4–12 cm; petiole 3–15 cm; blade ovate to oblong, deep-lobed, leaflets 5–7, lanceolate to obovate, obtuse or acute, short-pointed, entire, lower pair generally distinct, terminal ± merged. Inflorescence: near ground, << subtending leaves; peduncle 1–5 cm; pedicels 4–15 mm. Flower: calyx lobes 3–4 mm, < 8 mm in fruit; corolla 4–10 mm, lobes 2–6 mm, white to purple or white with lavender marks; anthers << 1 mm; style 7–10 mm. Seed: 1–3.
Moist slopes, meadows, flats; 900–2500 m. High Cascade Range, n High Sierra Nevada, Modoc Plateau; to Oregon, Idaho, Utah. May–Jul [Online Interchange]
Unabridged note: Expanded author citation: Hydrophyllum capitatum Douglas ex Benth. var. alpinum S. Watson.
Previous taxon: Hydrophyllum
Next taxon: Hydrophyllum fendleri var. albifrons
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Aug 23 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Hydrophyllum, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=60114, accessed on Aug 23 2014
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|Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Hydrophyllum capitatum var. alpinum|| Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).
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