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Annual to shrub, or non-green root parasite, often bristly or sharp-hairy. Stem: prostrate to erect. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, generally simple, generally alternate. Inflorescence: generally cymes, or panicle-, raceme-, head-, or spike-like, generally coiled in flower (often described as scorpioid), generally elongating in fruit, or flowers 1–2 per axil. Flower: bisexual, generally radial; sepals (4)5(10), fused at least at base, or free; corolla (4)5(10)-lobed, salverform, funnel-shaped, rotate, or bell-shaped, appendages 0 or 5 at top of tube, alternate stamens; stamens epipetalous; ovary superior, entire to 4-lobed, style 1(2), entire or 2-lobed or -branched. Fruit: valvate or circumscissile capsule or nutlets 1–4, free (fused), smooth to roughened, prickly or bristly or not.
± 120 genera, ± 2300 species: tropics, temperate, especially western North America, Mediterranean; some cultivated (Borago, Heliotropium, Echium, Myosotis, Nemophila, Phacelia, Symphytum). Many genera may be TOXIC from pyrrolizidine alkaloids or accumulated nitrates. [Olmstead et al. 2000 Molec Phylogen Evol 16:96–112] Recently treated to include Hydrophyllaceae, Lennoaceae. —Scientific Editors: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin, David J. Keil.
Key to Boraginaceae
Annual, perennial herb [shrub], glabrous to bristly or strigose. Stem: prostrate to erect, branched. Leaf: generally cauline, petioled to sessile, generally entire. Inflorescence: flower 1 in axils or many in terminal coiled spike-like cymes. Flower: corolla rotate to bell-shaped, white to purple; stamens attached on upper tube, included, anthers ± sessile; style 0 or not lobed, stigma 1, linear to disk-like. Fruit: nutlets 2 or 4, erect, generally ovoid to spheric, smooth, roughened, or hairy, scar generally lateral.Key to Heliotropium
± 250 species: temperate, tropics. Ornamental, cultivated for medicinal drugs. (Greek: sun turning, from some species flowering at summer solstice)
Unabridged references: [Ewan 1942 Bull So Calif Acad Sci 41: 51–57]
Perennial herb, fleshy, occasionally from rhizome-like root. Stem: prostrate to ± ascending, 1–6 dm, glabrous. Leaf: 1–6 cm, generally oblanceolate, short-petioled to subsessile, acute to obtuse, glabrous. Inflorescence: spike-like cymes 2–4. Flower: calyx lobes oblong to narrow-ovate, glabrous; corolla 3–5 mm, 3–5(7) mm diam, salverform to bell-shaped, white, throat generally blue-purple, upper tube ± yellow. Fruit: nutlets 4, smooth.
2n=26, 28. Moist to dry, saline to alkaline soils, generally near water; < 2250 m. California (except Klamath Ranges, High North Coast Ranges, c High Sierra Nevada); southern Nevada, southwestern Utah, to western Texas, northern Mexico. Feb–Oct [Online Interchange]
Unabridged note: Part of worldwide, highly polymorphic sp. complex with many ecological and/or geographical variants. Expanded author citation: Heliotropium curassavicum L. var. oculatum (A. Heller) I.M. Johnst. ex Tidestr.
Previous taxon: Heliotropium convolvulaceum var. californicum
Next taxon: Heliotropium europaeum
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Sep 2 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Heliotropium, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=59914, accessed on Sep 2 2014
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|Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Heliotropium curassavicum var. oculatum|| Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).
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