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Key to families | Table of families and genera

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BORAGINACEAE BORAGE or WATERLEAF FAMILY

Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Richard R. Halse & Timothy C. Messick, family description, key to genera; treatment of genera by Ronald B. Kelley, except as noted

Annual to shrub, or non-green root parasite, often bristly or sharp-hairy. Stem: prostrate to erect. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, generally simple, generally alternate. Inflorescence: generally cymes, or panicle-, raceme-, head-, or spike-like, generally coiled in flower (often described as scorpioid), generally elongating in fruit, or flowers 1–2 per axil. Flower: bisexual, generally radial; sepals (4)5(10), fused at least at base, or free; corolla (4)5(10)-lobed, salverform, funnel-shaped, rotate, or bell-shaped, appendages 0 or 5 at top of tube, alternate stamens; stamens epipetalous; ovary superior, entire to 4-lobed, style 1(2), entire or 2-lobed or -branched. Fruit: valvate or circumscissile capsule or nutlets 1–4, free (fused), smooth to roughened, prickly or bristly or not.
± 120 genera, ± 2300 species: tropics, temperate, especially western North America, Mediterranean; some cultivated (Borago, Heliotropium, Echium, Myosotis, Nemophila, Phacelia, Symphytum). Many genera may be TOXIC from pyrrolizidine alkaloids or accumulated nitrates. [Olmstead et al. 2000 Molec Phylogen Evol 16:96–112] Recently treated to include Hydrophyllaceae, Lennoaceae. —Scientific Editors: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin, David J. Keil.

Key to Boraginaceae

HELIOTROPIUM HELIOTROPE

Ronald B. Kelley & Dieter H. Wilken

Annual, perennial herb [shrub], glabrous to bristly or strigose. Stem: prostrate to erect, branched. Leaf: generally cauline, petioled to sessile, generally entire. Inflorescence: flower 1 in axils or many in terminal coiled spike-like cymes. Flower: corolla rotate to bell-shaped, white to purple; stamens attached on upper tube, included, anthers ± sessile; style 0 or not lobed, stigma 1, linear to disk-like. Fruit: nutlets 2 or 4, erect, generally ovoid to spheric, smooth, roughened, or hairy, scar generally lateral.
± 250 species: temperate, tropics. Ornamental, cultivated for medicinal drugs. (Greek: sun turning, from some species flowering at summer solstice)
Unabridged references: [Ewan 1942 Bull So Calif Acad Sci 41: 51–57]

Key to Heliotropium

H. convolvulaceum (Nutt.) A. Gray var. californicum (Greene) I.M. Johnst. MORNING-GLORY HELIOTROPE
NATIVE
Annual, taprooted. Stem: ascending to erect, 7–18 cm, canescent. Leaf: 1–4 cm, elliptic to ovate, generally petioled, acute, dense-strigose. Inflorescence: flowers 1 in axils. Flower: opening late afternoon, closing next morning, ± fragrant; calyx lobes lanceolate, long-tapered, dense-spreading-bristly; corolla 7–10 mm, 8–15+ mm diam, wide-bell-shaped to salverform, papery, white, tube long-exserted, constricted, throat swollen, green-yellow; anthers in throat. Fruit: nutlets 4, long-soft-hairy.
2n=42. Sandy soils, dunes; < 700 m. Desert; western Arizona, northern Mexico. Typical var. to Great Plains. Apr–Oct [Online Interchange]

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Next taxon: Heliotropium curassavicum var. oculatum

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Jul 22 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Heliotropium, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=59910, accessed on Jul 22 2014

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Bioregions in which Heliotropium convolvulaceum var. californicum occurs Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.