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Daniel Potter & Barbara Ertter, family description, key to genera; treatment of genera by Daniel Potter, except as noted

Annual to tree, glandular or not. Leaf: simple to palmately or pinnately compound, generally alternate; stipules free to fused (0), persistent to deciduous. Inflorescence: cyme, raceme, panicle, cluster, or flowers 1; bractlets on pedicel ("pedicel bractlets") generally 0–3(many), subtended by bract or generally not. Flower: generally bisexual, radial; hypanthium free or fused to ovary, saucer- to funnel-shaped, subtending bractlets ("hypanthium bractlets") 0–5, alternate sepals; sepals generally 5; petals generally 5, free; stamens (0,1)5–many, anther pollen sacs generally 2; pistils (0)1–many, simple or compound, ovary superior to inferior, styles 1–5. Fruit: 1–many per flower, achene (fleshy-coated or not), follicle, drupe, or pome with generally papery core, occasionally drupe-like with 1–5 stones. Seed: generally 1–5 (per fruit, not per flower).
110 genera, ± 3000 species: worldwide, especially temperate; many cultivated for ornamental, fruit, especially Cotoneaster, Fragaria, Malus, Prunus, Pyracantha, Rosa, Rubus. [Potter et al. 2007 Plant Syst Evol 266:5–43] Number of teeth is per leaf or leaflet, not per side of leaf or leaflet, except in Drymocallis. —Scientific Editors: Daniel Potter, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Robertson 1974 J Arnold Arbor 55:303–332, 344–401, 611–662]

Key to Rosaceae


Joseph R. Rohrer

Perennial herb from thick caudex or elongate rhizome. Stem: ascending to erect, generally hairy. Leaf: generally basal, generally odd-1-pinnately compound, upper cauline simple or not; leaflets lobed, alternately large, small, teeth uneven. Inflorescence: generally cyme, open; pedicel bractlets 0. Flower: hypanthium shallow, bractlets generally 5; stamens > 20; pistils many, ovary superior, continuous to style. Fruit: achene, ovoid to fusiform, ± flat; style elongated, persistent.
40–50 species: generally northern temperate, arctic. (Latin: ancient name)

Key to Geum

G. triflorum Pursh var. ciliatum (Pursh) Fassett PRAIRIE-SMOKE
Plant in patches, rhizomed, ± gray-green. Stem: generally 10–50 cm. Leaf: 4–30 cm; leaflets wedge-shaped, generally 2–3-lobed > 1/2 to base, lobes deeply few-toothed, main leaflets 3–9 per side, largest 1–3 cm, ± = terminal. Inflorescence: (1)3–5(7)-flowered; pedicels tomentose, occasionally glandular. Flower: ± cup-shaped, nodding; hypanthium bractlets 5–15 mm, linear-oblanceolate, outcurved; sepals erect, 6–14 mm, maroon, purple, or ± green and purple-tinged; petals erect, 7–13 mm, ± elliptic, cream to pale yellow, pink-tinged or purple-veined, persistent. Fruit: body 2.5–5 mm; style 15–40 mm below tardily deciduous tip, not or inconspicuously hooked, plumose.
2n=42. Dry meadow edges, sagebrush scrub, open yellow-pine forest; 1300–3200 m. c Klamath Ranges (Marble Mtns), High Cascade Range, n&c High Sierra Nevada, Great Basin Floristic Province; to British Columbia, Montana, Colorado. [Geum canescens (Greene) Munz; Geum ciliatum Pursh; Geum triflorum var. canescens (Greene) Kartesz & Gandhi] May–Jul [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 27 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Geum, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 27 2015

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Geum triflorum var. ciliatum Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.