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GENTIANACEAE GENTIAN FAMILY

James S. Pringle, except as noted

Annual to perennial herb [to trees]. Stem: decumbent to erect, < 2 m, simple or branched. Leaf: simple, cauline, sometimes also basal, opposite or whorled, entire, sessile or basal ± petioled; stipules 0. Flower: bisexual, radial, parts in 4s or 5s except pistil 1; sepals fused, persistent; petals fused, ± persistent, sinus between lobes often unappendaged; stamens epipetalous, alternate corolla lobes; ovary superior, chamber 1, placentas parietal, often intruding, stigmas 1–2. Fruit: capsule, 2-valved. Seed: many.
± 90 genera, 1800 species: worldwide; some cultivated (Eustoma, Exacum, Gentiana). [Struwe & Albert 2002 Gentianaceae. Cambridge Univ Press] Gentianella tenella moved to Comastoma. Key to genera revised by Bruce G. Baldwin. —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Wood & Weaver 1982 J Arnold Arbor 63:441–487; Struwe & Albert 2002 Gentianaceae: Systematics and Natural History. Cambridge Univ Press]

Key to Gentianaceae

GENTIANA GENTIAN
Annual to perennial herb, generally glabrous. Stem: generally simple below inflorescence. Leaf: cauline, opposite (also basal or not). Inflorescence: compact cyme or flowers 1. Flower: parts generally in 5s (generally in 4s in Gentiana prostrata, 4s or 5s in Gentiana fremontii); calyx tube generally > lobes; corolla tube narrow-bell-shaped, lobes spreading, < tube, base of sinus between lobes truncate or generally with a variously shaped, sometimes fringed appendage, nectary pits 0 (nectaries on ovary stalk); ovary stalked, style ± 0 or short, entire, persistent, stigmas 2.
± 400 species: temperate to subarctic, alpine America, Eurasia. (Gentius, king of Illyria, who used roots to treat malaria)

Key to Gentiana

G. affinis Griseb. var. ovata A. Gray OREGON GENTIAN
NATIVE
Perennial herb. Stem: from caudex, decumbent to erect, several to many, 5–70 cm, puberulent. Leaf: basal 0; cauline many, 10–45 mm, 4–20 mm wide, minutely ciliate, lower < internodes, elliptic to ovate, upper > internodes, ovate to lanceolate, ± acute. Inflorescence: terminal; flowers 1–7, also 1–5 at 1–6 upper nodes or not. Flower: calyx 5–23 mm, lobes linear to narrow-elliptic, generally < 1.5 mm wide, acute, minutely ciliate, some vestigial or not; corolla (12)25–45 mm, blue (white), lobes generally < 7 mm, oblong-ovate, mucronate, sinus appendages divided ± to base into 2 ± triangular parts, these thread-like only toward tip. Seed: winged.
2n=26. Meadows, shrubby places; < 2300 m. North Coast, Klamath Ranges, High Cascade Range, Central Coast, San Francisco Bay Area, Warner Mountains; to Washington, Idaho. [Gentiana affinis var. parvidentata Kusn.] Some plants in northern California approach Gentiana affinis var. affinis of Rocky Mountains. Jul–Aug [Online Interchange]
Unabridged synonyms: [Gentiana affinis var. parvidentata Kusn.; Gentiana oregana A. Gray]

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Next taxon: Gentiana calycosa

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Aug 1 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Gentiana, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=59422, accessed on Aug 1 2014

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Bioregions in which Gentiana affinis var. ovata occurs Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.