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APIACEAE (Umbelliferae) CARROT FAMILY

Lincoln Constance & Margriet Wetherwax, except as noted

Annual to perennial herb [shrub, tree], generally from taproot. Stem: generally ± scapose, generally ribbed, hollow. Leaf: basal and generally cauline, generally alternate; stipules generally 0; petiole base generally sheathing stem; blade generally much dissected, occasionally compound. Inflorescence: umbel or head, simple or compound, generally peduncled; bracts present in involucres or 0; bractlets generally present in "involucels". Flower: many, small, generally bisexual (or some staminate), generally radial (or outer bilateral); calyx 0 or lobes 5, small; petals 5, free, generally ovate or spoon-shaped, generally incurved at tips, generally ± ephemeral; stamens 5; pistil 1, ovary inferior, 2-chambered, generally with a ± conic, persistent projection or platform at tip subtending 2 free styles. Fruit: 2 dry, 1-seeded halves (= mericarps), separating from each other but generally ± persistent to central axis; ribs on halves 5, 2 marginal, 3 to back; oil tubes 1–several per interval between ribs.
300 genera, 3000 species: ± worldwide, especially temperate; many cultivated for food or spice (e.g., Carum, caraway; Daucus; Petroselinum); Bupleurum lancifolium Hornem. is historical garden weed; some toxic (e.g., Conium). Mature fruit generally critical in identification, shape given in outline. Hydrocotyle moved to Araliaceae. Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) A.W. Hill is a waif. —Scientific Editors: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.

Key to Apiaceae

ERYNGIUM

Robert E. Preston, Michael S. Park & Lincoln Constance

Biennial, perennial herb; taprooted, roots clustered, or rhizomes; generally glabrous, ± spiny. Stem: decumbent to erect, generally branched. Leaf: basal rosette, cauline; petioles present or 0; blades linear to triangular-ovate or round, generally pinnately or palmately lobed or dissected (entire), generally sharp-toothed or spine-tipped, net-veined; juvenile leaves linear, segmented. Inflorescence: heads 1–many in cymes, racemes [panicles]; bracts each generally subtend 1 flower, with scarious membrane enclosing ovary, outer > to >> inner, spiny or not on margins and abaxially; rays, pedicels 0. Flower: sepals spine-tipped, generally persistent; petals oblong to ovate or oblanceolate, white to blue or purple, tip long; anthers, styles generally green, occasionally blue; ovary tip projection 0. Fruit: obconic to obovate or narrowly elliptic [round], compressed or not, densely scaly; scales at fruit tip and along juncture of carpels generally larger, longer than on face or base; ribs 0; oil tubes obscure; fruit central axis not obvious. Seed: face generally flat.
± 230 species: America, Eurasia, Australia, New Zealand. (Ancient Greek name used by Theophrastus) [Marsden & Simpson 1999 Madroño 46:61–64] California species variable, intergrading, need study.
Unabridged references: [Sheikh 1983 Madroño 30:93–101]

Key to Eryngium

E. aristulatum Jeps.
NATIVE
Generally glabrous, occasionally puberulent only on leaves or bracts. Stem: decumbent to erect, 1–9 dm, slender to stout, main stem branching 2–5 cm distal to rosette. Leaf: basal < branches; petiole 5–27 cm; blade 3–10 cm, < petiole, lanceolate to oblanceolate, coarsely sharp-serrate, irregularly cut, or lobed. Inflorescence: heads 5–12 mm, ± spheric, in cymes, glabrous, puberulent or rough; peduncle 0.5–1.5 cm; bracts 6–27 mm, linear to lance-linear, margins with 0–few spines proximal to middle, 0–few spines adaxially. Flower: sepals 1.7–2.8 mm, lanceolate to ovate, entire, tip-spine < 1 mm; petals oblanceolate, white; styles 1.5–3.5 mm, occasionally ± purple. Fruit: 1.5–2.5 mm, narrowly elliptic; scales dense, unequal, lanceolate to ovate, acuminate, minutely bristled. Highly variable. [Online Interchange]
Unabridged note: Eryngium aristulatum originally applied to slender, sprawling plants with heads <= 6 mm, fruit scales densely bristly; stout, erect plants with heads > 6 mm, fruits sparsely bristly may deserve recognition as Eryngium oblanceolatum J.M. Coult. & Rose; other varieties may warrant sp. rank.

E. aristulatum var. aristulatum
NATIVE
Glabrous (puberulent). Stem: slender, sprawling, to stout, erect. Inflorescence: outer bract margins spiny, occasionally few spines adaxially, inner bracts with 0–few marginal spines. Fruit: styles >> calyx; scales densely to sparsely bristly.
2n=32,64. Vernal pools, lakeshores, drying lakes, wet depressions; < 1070 m. North Coast, North Coast Ranges, Sacramento Valley, San Francisco Bay Area. May–Aug [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Apr 24 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2012. Eryngium, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=58845, accessed on Apr 24 2014

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click for enlargement Eryngium aristulatum var. aristulatum
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© 2012 Aaron Arthur

Bioregions in which Eryngium aristulatum var. aristulatum occurs Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.