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POLYGONACEAE BUCKWHEAT FAMILY

Mihai Costea & James L. Reveal, family description, key to genera; treatment of genera revised in consultation with James L. Reveal, except as noted

Annual to shrub [tree]. Stem: nodes swollen or not. Leaf: simple, basal or cauline, generally alternate; ocreae present or 0, generally scarious, persistent or not. Inflorescence: flower clusters in axillary to terminal cyme-, panicle-, raceme-, spike-, umbel- or head-like arrangements, entire inflorescence or main inflorescence branches generally subtended by bracts ("inflorescence bracts"); peduncles present or 0; flower clusters in Eriogoneae-Eriogonoideae subtended by involucre of >= 1 free or ± fused, sometimes awn-tipped bracts ("involucre bracts") or, in Polygonoideae and rarely in Eriogonoideae, not (if bracts completely fused, involucre "tubular"); pedicels in Eriogoneae each often subtended by 2 free, transparent, linear bractlets or in Polygonoideae all subtended by 2+ fused, membranous, wide bractlets. Flower: generally bisexual, small, 1–200 per node; perianth parts 2–6, generally in 2 whorls, free or basally fused, generally petal-like, often ± concave adaxially, often darker at midvein, often turning ± red or ± brown in age; stamens [1]3 or 6–9 in 2 whorls; ovary superior, 1-chambered, ovule 1, styles 1–3. Fruit: achenes, included in or exserted from perianth, generally 3-angled, ovoid or elliptic, generally glabrous.
48 genera, ± 1200 species: worldwide, especially northern temperate; some cultivated for food (Coccoloba, sea-grape; Fagopyrum, Rheum, Rumex) or ornamental (Antigonon, lovechain; Coccoloba; Muehlenbeckia; Persicaria; Polygonum), a few timbered (Coccoloba; Triplaris). Several (Emex; Fallopia; Persicaria; Polygonum; Rumex) are weeds. [Freeman & Reveal 2005 FNANM 5:216–601] Treatment of genera in Eriogonoideae based on monographic work of James L. Reveal. Involucre number throughout is number (1–many) per ultimate grouping, at tips of ultimate branches; flower number is per flower cluster or involucre, unless otherwise stated. Fagopyrum esculentum Moench not naturalized, considered an historical waif (or garden weed ± presently), therefore not treated. —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.

Key to Polygonaceae

ERIOGONUM WILD BUCKWHEAT
Annual to shrub, matted or not. Stem: prostrate to erect, occasionally 0, glabrous or hairy, occasionally glandular. Leaf: basal, sheathing (on stem above basal, beneath other, ± non-sheathing cauline), or cauline, alternate, opposite, or whorled; blades linear to ± round, generally longer than wide, margins flat, wavy, or rolled under; ocreae 0. Inflorescence: variable, glabrous or hairy, occasionally glandular; peduncles 0 or erect to reflexed (pointed down); involucres 1 or in clusters, tubular, glabrous or hairy, teeth generally 4–10, awns 0. Flower: (2)6–100(200), with a stalk-like base ("flower stipe" or "stipe") or not; perianth generally white to red or yellow, glabrous or hairy, occasionally glandular, lobes 6, generally entire; stamens 9. Fruit: generally brown or black, generally obconic, glabrous or hairy; embryo curved or straight.
± 250 species: temperate North America. (Greek: woolly knees, for hairy nodes of 1st sp. named) One of largest genera in California; stem in descriptions refers to the main stem(s), not branches of inflorescence. A perennial herb allied to Eriogonum austrinum (S. Stokes) Reveal and Eriogonum moranii Reveal of east-central Baja California, with spreading (rather than reflexed or erect) involucres on peduncles < 2 mm, occurring in Desert Mountains (Bristol, Granite mountains), has been known for nearly 25 years yet remains undescribed. Eriogonum puberulum moved to Johanneshowellia.

Key to Eriogonum

E. shockleyi S. Watson var. shockleyi SHOCKLEY'S BUCKWHEAT (Group 4)
NATIVE
Perennial mat, scapose, (0.5)1–4(20) dm diam. Stem: (0.05)0.1–0.3 dm, hairy to tomentose. Leaf: basal; blades (0.2)0.3–0.8(1.2) cm, 0.2–0.4(0.6) cm wide, tomentose to hairy. Inflorescence: head-like, 0.8–2 cm wide; peduncles 0; involucres 2–4(6), (2)2.5–5(6) mm, 3–6(7) mm wide, tomentose; teeth 5–10. Flower: 2.5–4 mm, hairy; perianth white to rose or yellow, lobes oblong to obovate. Fruit: 2.5–3 mm, tomentose.
Gravel or clay; (800)1200–2600 m. East of Sierra Nevada, n Desert Mountains (Last Chance Range); to southern Idaho, Colorado, northwestern New Mexico. May–Aug [Online Interchange] {CNPS list}

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Oct 31 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Eriogonum, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=58715, accessed on Oct 31 2014

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Eriogonum shockleyi var. shockleyi Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.