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Annual to shrub or small tree, or non-green root parasite, often bristly or sharp-hairy. Stem: prostrate to erect. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, generally simple, generally alternate. Inflorescence: generally cymes, or panicle-, raceme-, head-, or spike-like, generally coiled in flower (often described as scorpioid), generally elongating in fruit, or flowers 1–2 per axil. Flower: bisexual, generally radial; sepals (4)5(10), fused at least at base, or free; corolla (4)5(10)-lobed, salverform, funnel-shaped, rotate, or bell-shaped, generally without scales at tube base, with 0 or 5 appendages at tube top, alternate stamens; stamens epipetalous; ovary generally superior, entire to 4-lobed, style 1(2), entire or 2-lobed or -branched. Fruit: valvate or circumscissile capsule or nutlets 1–4, free (fused), smooth to roughened, prickly or bristly or not.
± 120 genera, ± 2300 species: tropics, temperate, especially western North America, Mediterranean; some cultivated (Borago, Heliotropium, Echium, Myosotis, Nemophila, Phacelia, Symphytum, Wigandia). Many genera may be TOXIC from pyrrolizidine alkaloids or accumulated nitrates. [Olmstead et al. 2000 Molec Phylogen Evol 16:96–112] Recently treated to include Hydrophyllaceae, Lennoaceae. Wigandia urens added, as naturalized. —Scientific Editors: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin, David J. Keil.
Key to Boraginaceae
1 sp. (Greek: abiding flower, from persistent corolla)
Annual, glandular, sticky, odorous. Stem: erect, 5–85 cm, branches 0–many. Leaf: basal and cauline, alternate; lower short-petioled, upper sessile, generally clasping, 1–12 cm, generally < 3 cm wide, toothed to deep-pinnate-lobed. Inflorescence: terminal; pedicels 5–15 mm, 12–25 mm in fruit, thread-like, ± subspreading to recurved. Flower: calyx lobes 4–11 mm, 1–4 mm wide, lanceolate to ovate, glandular; corolla 6–15 mm, bell-shaped, white, yellow, or pink, glandular-hairy, persistent in age, withering, papery, enclosing fruit; stamens included, generally equal, attached ± at same level; ovary chambers appearing 2, style included, 1–4 mm, lobes 2. Fruit: capsule, 7–10 mm, 2–4 mm wide, glandular. Seed: 6–15, flat, wide-elliptic, brown; surface honeycombed.Key to Emmenanthe penduliflora
n=18. [Online Interchange]
Talus slopes, rocky, sandy, or serpentine soils; 400–1800 m. San Francisco Bay Area, Inner South Coast Ranges, n Western Transverse Ranges (Mount Pinos). Apr–Jun [Online Interchange]
Previous taxon: Emmenanthe penduliflora var. penduliflora
Next taxon: Eriodictyon
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Oct 9 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Emmenanthe, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=58257, accessed on Oct 9 2015
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|Emmenanthe penduliflora var. rosea|
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© 2005 Aaron Schusteff
|Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Emmenanthe penduliflora var. rosea|| Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).
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