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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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Annual to shrub, or non-green root parasite, generally bristly or sharp-hairy.
Stem: prostrate to erect.
Leaf: cauline, often with basal rosette, simple or compound, generally alternate.
Inflorescence: cymes, generally elongate, panicle-, raceme-, or spike-like, generally coiled in flower (often described as scorpioid), generally uncoiled in fruit, or heads, spikes, or panicles, or flowers 1–2 per axil.
Flower: bisexual, generally radial; sepals (4)5(10), fused at least at base, or free; corolla generally (4)5(10)-lobed, salverform, funnel-shaped, rotate, or bell-shaped, appendages 0 or 5 at top of tube, alternate stamens; stamens epipetalous; ovary superior, entire to 4-lobed, style 1(2), entire or 2-lobed or -branched.
Fruit: nutlets 1–4, free ( fused), smooth to roughened, prickly or bristly or not, or valvate or circumscissile capsule.
± 120 genera, ± 2300 species: tropics, temperate, especially w North America, Medit; some cultivated (Borago, Heliotropium, Echium, Myosotis, Nemophila, Phacelia, Symphytum). Many genera may be TOXIC from pyrrolizidine alkaloids or accumulated nitrates. [Olmsted et al. 2000 Molec Phylogen Evol 16:96–112] Recently treated to include Hydrophyllaceae, Lennoaceae. —Scientific Editors: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Bruce G. Baldwin, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Key to Boraginaceae
Annual to perennial herb, generally erect.Key to Cryptantha
Stem: branches 0 or generally ascending to erect, hairy.
Leaf: generally sessile; basal whorled, cauline generally alternate, reduced above ( opposite below); generally strigose, rough-hairy, or bristly, largest bristles generally bulbous-based.
Inflorescence: generally terminal, raceme- or generally spike-like cymes, in groups of 1–5 (> 5), generally coiled in bud, generally elongated in fruit; bracts generally 0.
Flower: generally unscented, persistent or not; sepals fused at base; corolla tube generally 1–13 mm, limb 0.5–12 mm diam, generally white, appendages generally 5; anthers included; ovary generally 4-lobed.
Fruit: pedicel 0 or < 12 mm in fruit; nutlets 1–4, generally gray to brown, smooth to granular, tubercled, or papillate, with abaxial, longitudinal ridge to not; margin rounded, sharp-edged, or a ± flat rim or wing; adaxially grooved above attachment scar, scar generally lateral, narrow, open to closed, raised or generally not, edges inrolled to sharp-angled, generally forked or flared open at base; central fruit axis (" axis") not reaching to extending beyond fruit.
± 200 species: w North America, w South America, ne Asia (1 sp.). (Greek: hidden flowers, from cleistogamous flowers of some South America species) Generally homostylous. The tissue between ovary lobes, interpreted as a receptacle and/or style (style sometimes 0, then stigma attached to top of receptacle), extends to various degrees in fruit, forming what is often called the gynobase (here "fruit axis"), to which the nutlets are laterally attached at maturity, leaving an attachment scar. Annual species without yellow corolla appendages generally self-pollinating; perennial herb species generally homostylous in CA. Some species, e.g., Cryptantha angustifolia, Cryptantha ambigua, Cryptantha barbigera, Cryptantha mariposae, hybridize with co-occurring species. Observation of nutlets, hairs best at 10+× generally critical for identification. Corolla limb diam generally < at end of flower period, especially for annual species Cryptantha sobolifera Payson does not occur in CA.
Unabridged references: [Johnston 1925 Contr Gray Herbarium 74:1–125; Higgins 1971 Brigham Young Sci Bull Biol Ser 13:1–63, 1979 Great Basin Naturalist 39:293–350; Simpson & Hasenstab 2009 Crossosoma 35:1–59]
Stem: branched or not.
Leaf: generally below middle of stem; 2–5(7) cm, linear to oblanceolate, strigose to rough-hairy or bristly, hairs ± ascending, few ± bulbous-based.
Inflorescence: generally in 2s, generally congested at tips; bracts 0; pedicel ± 0.5 mm, generally not elongated in fruit.
Flower: calyx generally constricted above, late- deciduous, lobe tips spreading, midvein ± thickened; corolla late- deciduous, limb 1–2 mm diam, appendages minute, white, or 0.
Fruit: nutlets (2)3–4, wide- ovate, smooth (fine-grainy), generally mottled, shiny, margin rounded, base wide-rounded to truncate, tip ± acute; abaxially ± flat, especially toward base, ridge 0; adaxially biconvex, attachment scar edges abutted, occasionally raised near tip, forked but not gapped at base. [Online Interchange]
Generally 5–20(25) cm.
Stem: sparse- strigose and generally dense-spreading-rough-hairy to bristly.
Flower: calyx 1–1.5(2) mm, (2.5)3–4.5 mm in fruit, lobes generally lanceolate, margins sparse- strigose, midvein dense-spreading-bristly.
Fruit: nutlets 1.3–1.5 mm; axis generally not to nutlet tips.
Generally chaparral, foothill woodland; 150–1280 m. n Central Western California (except Central Coast).
Previous taxon: Cryptantha torreyana
Next taxon: Cryptantha torreyana var. torreyana
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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|Bioregions in which taxon occurs||Red area (if present) is the part of the bioregion lying between the upper and lower elevation limits of the taxon;|
markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
Chart based on elevation range in Manual and elevations and coordinates of CCH records.
Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
Note: About half of the CCH records include both elevation and coordinates.
|Map made in collaboration with Scott Loarie. Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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