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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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Perennial herb, terrestrial [growing on other plants], non-green (nutrition from association of roots with fungi) or green, generally from rhizomes or tubers with few to many fleshy to slender roots; cauline leaves ± reduced to sheathing stem bracts or not. Leaf: 1–many, basal to cauline, linear to ± round, alternate to opposite (if only 1 pair), generally sessile. Inflorescence: flowers 1–many, spike or raceme, bracted. Flower: bisexual, bilateral, in bud generally rotating 180° by twisting ovary (position of parts indicated after twisting); sepals generally 3, generally free, generally petal-like, uppermost generally erect, lateral with chin- or spur-like projection (mentum) or not; petals 3, 1 (lip) different, spurred or not; stamens generally 1 (3 in Cypripedium, 2 functional, 1 a staminode), fused with style, stigma into column, pollen generally lumped, generally removed as unit by insect; ovary inferior, 1-chambered, placentas 3, parietal, stigma 3 lobed, generally under column tip. Fruit: capsule. Seed: many, minute.
± 800 genera, ± 25000 species: especially tropics (worldwide except Antarctica). Many cultivated for ornamental, especially Cattleya, Cymbidium, Epidendrum, Oncidium, Paphiopedilum; Vanilla planifolia Andrews fruits used to flavor food. [Romero-Gonzalez et al. 2002 FNANM 26:490–651] Platanthera may be paraphyletic without inclusion of Piperia (Bateman et al. 2009 Ann Bot 104:431–445); study needed. —Scientific Editors: Ronald A. Coleman, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Luer 1975 Orchids US and Can, NY Bot Garden; Coleman 1995 Wild Orchids of California. Cornell Univ.]
Key to Orchidaceae
Plant ± scapose, brown, tan, ± pink, ± red, ± purple, (± green); rhizome branches many, short, scaly, together coral-like. Leaf: at flower 0. Inflorescence: raceme; flower bract << flower, often scale-like. Flower: sepals ± alike, oblong to (ob)lanceolate, generally curved over column and lip, generally 3-veined, lower generally fused at base, mentum present or not; lateral petals spreading or curved toward lip, lip not spurred, entire to 3-lobed, spreading to reflexed; column generally convex adaxially, concave abaxially, curved over lip. Fruit: pendent.Key to Corallorhiza
11 species: North America, Central America, Eurasia. (Greek: coral root)
Plant 17–55 cm. Stem: red to yellow-brown to yellow. Flower: sepals 5.5–10 mm, lower spreading, color generally same as stems, mentum < 2.5 mm; lateral petals generally like sepals, yellow-brown or deep pink to red, dark-spotted or not, lip 5–7 mm, with 2 rounded lobes laterally, white, unspotted or generally red- to purple-spotted, tip crenate or toothed; column 3–5 mm, ± yellow, purple-spotted. Fruit: 15–20 mm.
2n=42. Where together, Corallorhiza maculata var. occidentalis typically flowers 2–4 weeks earlier than Corallorhiza maculata var. maculata. [Online Interchange]
Inflorescence: flower bracts generally 1–2.8 mm, often forked. Flower: lip widening to tip.
Shaded mixed-evergreen or conifer forest, in decomposing leaf litter; < 2800 m. Northwestern California, Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada (except Tehachapi Mountain Area), San Francisco Bay Area, Outer South Coast Ranges, San Gabriel Mountains, San Bernardino Mountains, Peninsular Ranges, Modoc Plateau, White and Inyo Mountains; to British Columbia, southeastern Canada, southeastern United States, New Mexico. Feb–Aug [Online Interchange]
Previous taxon: Corallorhiza maculata var. maculata
Next taxon: Corallorhiza mertensiana
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Oct 10 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Corallorhiza, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=56798, accessed on Oct 10 2015
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|Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Corallorhiza maculata var. occidentalis|| Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).
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