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CUCURBITACEAE GOURD FAMILY

John M. Miller & Robert L. Schlising

Annual, perennial herb; hairs often hard from calcium deposits; generally monoecious. Stem: trailing or climbing, 1–many; tendril generally 1 per node, often branched. Leaf: generally simple, alternate, generally palmate-lobed and -veined, petioled; stipules 0. Inflorescence: at nodes; staminate flowers in racemes, panicles, small clusters, (or 1); pistillate flowers generally 1. Flower: unisexual [bisexual], radial; hypanthium > ovary; calyx generally 5-lobed (or ± 0); corolla rotate to cup- or bell-shaped, generally 5-lobed; stamens 3–5 (or ± 1–3 from fusion), anthers twisted together, often > filaments; ovary ± inferior, chambers 3–5, placentas parietal, styles 1–3, stigmas generally lobed, large. Fruit: berry, drying or not, or capsule, irregularly dehiscent, often gourd- or melon-like. Seed: 1–many.
100 genera, 700 species: especially tropics; some cultivated (Citrullus, watermelon; Cucumis, cucumber; Cucurbita, gourd, pumpkin, squash; Luffa, loofah; Sechium, chayote). [Schaefer et al. 2009 Proc Roy Soc London Ser B, Biol Sci 276:843–851] Several cultivated species included Bryonia dioica reported as waifs in California (Howell 1958 Wasmann J Biol 16:1–157), but none recently. —Scientific Editors: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Unabridged references: [Jeffrey 1990 An outline classification of the Cucurbitaceae, In: Bates, Robinson, and Jeffrey (eds.), Biology and Utilization of the Cucurbitaceae 17:449–463, Cornell Univ Press, Ithaca, NY; Kocyan et al. 2007 Molec Phylogen Evol 44:553–577; Lira, Rodriguez-Jimenez, Alvarado, Rodriguez, Castrejon, Dominguez-Mariani 1998 Acta Bot Mex 42: 43–77; McVaugh 2001 Cucurbitaceae In W.R. Anderson (ed), Flora Novo-Galiciana 3:483–652, Univ Michigan Herbarium, Ann Arbor, Michigan; Schaefer et al. 2008 Syst Bot 33:125–132]

Key to Cucurbitaceae

CITRULLUS
Annual. Stem: ± hairy; tendril branched. Leaf: deeply, ± palmately lobed; 1° lobes ± pinnately lobed. Inflorescence: staminate, pistillate flowers 1, at different nodes. Flower: corolla generally < 3 cm wide, rotate or shallowly cup-shaped, yellow, deeply 5-lobed, fused part < 1 cm; anthers 3, free; stigmas 3, reniform. Fruit: melon-like, indehiscent, spheric to oblong; rind hard, smooth. Seed: many, ± 1 cm.
4 species: Africa, southern Asia, Europe. (Latin: diminutive of citrus) [Dane & Liu 2007 Genet Resources Crop Evol 54:1255–1265]
Unabridged references: [McVaugh 2001 Citrullus In W.R. Anderson (ed), Flora Novo-Galiciana 3:502–503, Univ Michigan Herbarium, Ann Arbor, Michigan]

C. lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai var. citroides (L.H. Bailey) Mansf. WILD WATERMELON
NATURALIZED
Fruit: large, green, generally striped or mottled with darker green; pulp white. Seed: white to black.
2n=22. Disturbed areas; < 300 m. Southwestern California, Mojave Desert; western Mexico; native to southern Africa. [Citrullus colocynthis var. lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai, ined.] Citrullus lanatus var. caffrorum (Alef.) Fosberg evidently has priority and so would be correct name; widely cultivated; hybridizes with Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad.; Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus, cultivated watermelon, often escaped but not naturalized in California. May–Aug [Online Interchange]
Unabridged synonyms: [Citrullus vulgaris Schrad. ex Eckl. & Zeyh., in part]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Jul 31 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Citrullus, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=56575, accessed on Jul 31 2014

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Bioregions in which Citrullus lanatus var. citroides occurs Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.