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Previous taxon Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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Lincoln Constance & Margriet Wetherwax, except as noted

Annual to perennial herb [shrub, tree], generally from taproot. Stem: generally ± scapose, generally ribbed, hollow. Leaf: basal and generally cauline, generally alternate; stipules generally 0; petiole base generally sheathing stem; blade generally much dissected, occasionally compound. Inflorescence: umbel or head, simple or compound, generally peduncled; bracts present in involucres or 0; bractlets generally present in "involucels". Flower: many, small, generally bisexual (or some staminate), generally radial (or outer bilateral); calyx 0 or lobes 5, small; petals 5, free, generally ovate or spoon-shaped, generally incurved at tips, generally ± ephemeral; stamens 5; pistil 1, ovary inferior, 2-chambered, generally with a ± conic, persistent projection or platform at tip subtending 2 free styles. Fruit: 2 dry, 1-seeded halves (= mericarps), separating from each other but generally ± persistent to central axis; ribs on halves 5, 2 marginal, 3 to back; oil tubes 1–several per interval between ribs.
300 genera, 3000 species: ± worldwide, especially temperate; many cultivated for food or spice (e.g., Carum, caraway; Daucus; Petroselinum); Bupleurum lancifolium Hornem. is historical garden weed; some toxic (e.g., Conium). Mature fruit generally critical in identification, shape given in outline. Hydrocotyle moved to Araliaceae. Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) A.W. Hill is a waif. —Scientific Editors: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.

Key to Apiaceae

Perennial herb, glabrous; rhizome internally chambered, sap becoming ± red-brown in air, fibrous- or tuberous-rooted. Stem: erect, hollow. Leaf: blade oblong to triangular-ovate, 1–3-pinnate or ternate-pinnate, leaflets linear to lance-ovate, serrate or irregularly cut. Inflorescence: umbels compound; bracts generally 0; bractlets generally inconspicuous; rays, pedicels many, spreading. Flower: calyx lobes minute; petals wide, white, tips narrowed. Fruit: ovoid to spheric, ± compressed side-to-side; ribs low, corky, occasionally unequally spaced; oil tube 1 per rib-interval; fruit axis divided to base. Seed: face flat or concave.
± 4 species: Eurasia, North America. (Ancient Latin name) TOXIC: the most lethally toxic native plant species. [Lee & Downie 2006 Canad J Bot 84:453–468]
Unabridged references: [Mulligan 1980 Canad J Bot 58:1755–1767]
Unabridged note: Both species below contain cicutoxin, a strong poison; many livestock and human deaths recorded.

Key to Cicuta

C. maculata L.
Plant 10–15 dm. Leaf: 1–4 dm, ovate to triangular-ovate, 1–2-pinnate; leaflets 2–10 cm, lanceolate, acute or acuminate, coarsely to sparsely serrate, areas surrounded by veins on abaxial surface smooth, generally rounded or square. Inflorescence: umbels compound, terminal and lateral; peduncles 2.5–12 cm; rays 15–30, 2–4.5 cm; pedicels 15–30, 2–10 mm. Fruit: 3–4 mm, generally ovate; rib width generally <= intervals between.
2n=22. Varieties best distinguishable in California by habitat, geography. Other varieties in eastern North America. [Online Interchange]

C. maculata var. bolanderi (S. Watson) G.A. Mulligan BOLANDER'S WATER-HEMLOCK
Leaf: generally 2-pinnate. Flower: styles generally > 1 mm.
Coastal wetlands; < 200 m. s Sacramento Valley (Suisun marshes), Central Coast, South Coast. Jul–Sep [Online Interchange] {CNPS list}
Unabridged synonyms: [Cicuta bolanderi S. Watson]

Previous taxon: Cicuta maculata var. angustifolia
Next taxon: Conioselinum


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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 26 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Cicuta, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 26 2015

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click for enlargement Cicuta maculata var. bolanderi
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2007 Doreen L. Smith

Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Cicuta maculata var. bolanderi Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.