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Key to families | Table of families and genera

Previous taxon Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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John M. Tucker, except as noted

Shrub, tree, evergreen or not; monoecious. Leaf: simple, alternate, petioled; margin entire to lobed; stipules small, generally deciduous. Staminate inflorescence: catkin or stiff spike, many-flowered. Pistillate inflorescence: 1–few-flowered, generally above staminate inflorescence; involucre bracts many, generally overlapping, flat or cylindric. Staminate flower: calyx generally 4–6-lobed, minute; petals 0; stamens 4–12+. Pistillate flower: calyx generally 6-lobed, minute; petals 0; ovary inferior, style branches generally 3. Fruit: 1 nut subtended, partly enclosed by scaly, cup-like involucre or 1–3 nuts subtended, enclosed by spiny, bur-like involucre; mature years 1–2. Seed: generally 1.
7 genera, ± 900 species: generally northern hemisphere. [Li et al. 2004 Int J Plant Sci 165:311–324] Wood of Quercus critical for pre-20th century ship-building, charcoal for metallurgy; some now supply wood (Fagus, Quercus), cork (Quercus suber), food (Castanea, chestnut). Lithocarpus densiflorus moved to Notholithocarpus. Scientific Editors: Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Unabridged references: [Li, R.-Q., Chen, Z.-D., Lu, A.-M., Soltis, D. E., Soltis, P. S., & Manos, P. S. 2004. Phylogenetic relationships in Fagales based on DNA sequences from three genomes. Int. J. Plant Sci. 165: 311–324.]

Key to Fagaceae

Evergreen. Leaf: leathery, adaxially ± glabrous, green, abaxially golden, with densely spaced, minute, appressed scales, margin entire or ± wavy above middle; stipules generally deciduous. Staminate inflorescence: branched or not, stiff, clustered or not, ascending to erect. Pistillate inflorescence: clustered below staminate on same or separate stalk, 1–3-flowered. Staminate flower: sepals generally 6, minute; stamens generally 8–10+. Fruit: nuts 1–3, enclosed by spiny, bur-like involucre, ovoid to ± spheric, ± angled; mature year 2.
2 species: western North America. (Greek: golden scale, from abaxial leaf)
Unabridged references: [Hjelmqvist 1960 Bot Not 113:373–380]

Key to Chrysolepis

C. chrysophylla (Hook.) Hjelmq. GIANT CHINQUAPIN
Shrub, tree < 30(45) m; top ± conic. Stem: trunk bark ± thick, rough, furrowed. Leaf: petiole 5–12 mm; blade 5–15 cm, lanceolate to oblong, adaxially dark green, abaxially golden, base tapered, tip abruptly long-tapered. Fruit: bur 3–5 cm diam; nut 6–15 mm. [Online Interchange]

C. chrysophylla var. minor (Benth.) Munz
Shrub, small tree < 5(10) m. Leaf: blade ± folded, margins upturned.
Conifer forest, closed-cone-pine forest, chaparral; < 1800 m. Northwestern California, Central Western California (except Inner South Coast Ranges); southwestern Oregon. [Castanopsis chrysophylla (Douglas ex Hook.) A.DC. var. minor (Benth.) A.DC.] Jun–Sep [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 30 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Chrysolepis, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 30 2015

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Chrysolepis chrysophylla var. minor Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.