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Key to families | Table of families and genera

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Dale W. McNeal, except as noted

Perennial herb, shrub, tree, fibrous succulent or not, from bulbs or rhizomes. Stem: above ground or not, branched or not. Leaf: simple, deciduous or not, basal or in terminal rosettes, generally sessile, linear, lanceolate, oblanceolate or ovate, fibrous or not, thin and flexible or thick and rigid or succulent; margin entire, fine-serrate, dentate, or with filaments, tips rigid or flexible, with a spine or not. Flower: bisexual; perianth parts 6, in 2 petal-like whorls, free or ± fused; stamens 6, ± fused to perianth, filaments often wide, succulent; ovary superior or inferior, chambers 3, style 1 (thick, poorly defined), stigma head-like or 3-lobed. Fruit: capsule, indehiscent, loculicidal, or septicidal. Seed: few to many, ± flat or ovoid, generally black.
23 genera, 637 species: worldwide. —Scientific Editors: Dale W. McNeal, Thomas J. Rosatti.

Key to Agavaceae


Judith A. Jernstedt

Perennial herb; bulb ovoid to ± elongate, outer coat white to brown, often fibrous; generally not heterostylous. Leaf: basal, linear. Inflorescence: panicle, peduncled; flowers, buds 1–several per node; bracts scarious. Flower: perianth parts 6 in 2 petal-like whorls, free, white, purple, or ± pink, twisted together above ovary in fruit; stamens 6, attached to base of perianth, anthers attached at middle; ovary superior, chambers 3, style thread-like, deciduous, stigma ± 3-lobed. Fruit: stalked, loculicidal. Seed: 1–2 per chamber, ovoid, black.
5 species: western North America, especially California. (Greek: green milk or juice) [Jernstedt 2006 FNANM 26:307–310]
Unabridged references: [Hoover 1940 Madroño 5:137–147]

Key to Chlorogalum

C. purpureum Brandegee
Bulb 2.5–3 cm; scales white to brown, membranous. Leaf: basal, 2–5 mm wide, linear, margin wavy. Inflorescence: 10–40 cm; branches few; pedicels 4–10 mm, generally > flowers, slender. Flower: open during day; perianth parts recurved, 5–7 mm, deep blue to purple; stamens ± = perianth, anthers ± 1 mm, yellow; style exserted, 5–6 mm. Fruit: ± 3 mm. Varieties intergrade but apparently retain distinctions in common garden experiments, produce fertile seed when artificially crossed. [Online Interchange]

C. purpureum var. purpureum SANTA LUCIA PURPLE AMOLE
Inflorescence: 25–40 cm.
n=30. Open woodland; ± 300 m. ne Outer South Coast Ranges (eastern side Santa Lucia Range, Monterey Co.). Threatened by trampling, grazing, vehicles. May–Jun [Online Interchange] {CNPS list}

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 28 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Chlorogalum, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 28 2015

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Chlorogalum purpureum var. purpureum Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.