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CHENOPODIACEAE GOOSEFOOT FAMILY

Mihai Costea, family description, key to genera, revised by Thomas J. Rosatti & Elizabeth H. Zacharias

Annual to shrub; hairs simple, stellate, or glandular; plants in several genera scaly, mealy, or powdery from collapsed glands; monoecious, dioecious, with bisexual flowers, or with both bisexual and unisexual flowers. Stem: occasionally fleshy. Leaf: blade simple, generally alternate, occasionally fleshy or reduced to scales, veins pinnate; stipules 0. Inflorescence: raceme, spike, catkin-like, spheric head, axillary clusters of flowers, or flowers 1; bracts 0–5, herbaceous, generally persistent or strongly modified in fruit, wings, tubercles or spines present or 0. Flower: bisexual or unisexual, small, generally green; calyx parts (1)3–5, or 0 in pistillate flowers, free or fused basally (or ± throughout), leaf-like in texture, membranous, or fleshy, deciduous or not, often strongly modified in fruit; corolla 0; stamens 1–5, opposite sepals, filaments free, equal; anthers 4-chambered; ovary superior (1/2-inferior), chamber 1; ovule 1; styles, stigmas 1–4 (or stigmas sessile). Fruit: achene or utricle, generally falling with persistent calyx or bracts. Seed: 1, small, lenticular to spheric; seed coat smooth to finely dotted, warty, net-like, or prickly, margin occasionally winged.
100 genera, 1500 species: worldwide, especially deserts, saline or alkaline soils; some cultivated for food (Beta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris, beet, Swiss chard; Spinacia oleracea L., spinach; Chenopodium quinoa Willd., quinoa); and some worldwide, naturalized ruderal or noxious agricultural weeds. Nitrophila treated in Amaranthaceae, Sarcobatus treated in Sarcobataceae. Key to genera revised by Elizabeth H. Zacharias to incorporate Extriplex and Stutzia, 2 genera segregated from Atriplex. —Scientific Editors: Bruce G. Baldwin, David J. Keil, Thomas J. Rosatti.

Key to Chenopodiaceae

CHENOPODIUM PIGWEED, GOOSEFOOT

Steven E. Clemants & Nuri Benet-Pierce

Annual or perennial herb, glabrous or powdery. Stem: branches 0 to generally erect (spreading). Leaf: generally petioled; blade linear to deltate or diamond-shaped, entire to lobed or toothed, reduced distally on stem; proximal leaves generally early-deciduous. Inflorescence: spheric clusters or flower 1, in spikes, or panicle-like, generally dense; bracts generally 0; flowers generally sessile. Flower: sepals generally 5, fused or not, persistent, flat to keeled; stamens generally 5; stigmas 2(5). Fruit: enclosed or subtended by calyx; fruit wall membranous or papery, free or attached to seed and generally loosening in age. Seed: vertical or horizontal, lenticular to ± spheric, red-brown to black; wall thin.
± 100 species: temperate; some cultivated for food or grain. (Greek: goose foot, from leaf shape of some species) [Clemants & Mosyakin 2003 FNANM 4:275–299] Fruit generally required for identification. Other species in TJM (1993) now treated in Dysphania.
Unabridged references: [Crawford 1975 Brittonia 27:279–288; Wahl 1954 Bartonia 27:1–46]
Unabridged note: Powder on plants from small, inflated hairs.

Key to Chenopodium

C. berlandieri Moq. PITSEED GOOSEFOOT
NATIVE
Annual 10–60 cm, generally not scented. Leaf: blade 15–30(40) mm, lanceolate to ± diamond-shaped, ovate, or ± deltate, generally with 2 lobes near base and serrate to irregularly toothed or entire, powdery. Inflorescence: clusters, in branched spikes 5–17 cm. Flower: sepals ovate to deltate, powdery, strongly keeled abaxially, enclosing fruit in age. Fruit: 1–1.5 mm diam; wall attached to seed, brown, honeycomb-pitted at 20×. Seed: horizontal; seed coat black, honeycomb-pitted.
2n=36. Generally confused with Chenopodium album. [Online Interchange]

C. berlandieri var. zschackei (Murr) Graebn.
NATIVE
Fruit: style base yellow. Seed: 1.2–1.5 mm diam.
Disturbed areas, ocean bluffs, sandy washes; < 2200 m. California Floristic Province; to Canada, western and central United States. Jul–Sep [Online Interchange]
Unabridged note: Expanded author citation: Chenopodium berlandieri var. zschackei (Murr) Murr ex Graebn.

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Oct 21 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Chenopodium, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=56416, accessed on Oct 21 2014

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Chenopodium berlandieri var. zschackei Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.