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ORCHIDACEAE ORCHID FAMILY

Ronald A. Coleman, Dieter H. Wilken & William F. Jennings, except as noted

Perennial herb, terrestrial [growing on other plants], non-green (nutrition from association of roots with fungi) or green, generally from rhizomes or tubers with few to many fleshy to slender roots; cauline leaves ± reduced to sheathing stem bracts or not. Leaf: 1–many, basal to cauline, linear to ± round, alternate to opposite (if only 1 pair), generally sessile. Inflorescence: flowers 1–many, spike or raceme, bracted. Flower: bisexual, bilateral, in bud generally rotating 180° by twisting ovary (position of parts indicated after twisting); sepals generally 3, generally free, generally petal-like, uppermost generally erect, lateral with chin- or spur-like projection (mentum) or not; petals 3, 1 (lip) different, spurred or not; stamens generally 1 (3 in Cypripedium, 2 functional, 1 a staminode), fused with style, stigma into column, pollen generally lumped, generally removed as unit by insect; ovary inferior, 1-chambered, placentas 3, parietal, stigma 3 lobed, generally under column tip. Fruit: capsule. Seed: many, minute.
± 800 genera, ± 25000 species: especially tropics (worldwide except Antarctica). Many cultivated for ornamental, especially Cattleya, Cymbidium, Epidendrum, Oncidium, Paphiopedilum; Vanilla planifolia Andrews fruits used to flavor food. [Romero-Gonzalez et al. 2002 FNANM 26:490–651] Platanthera may be paraphyletic without inclusion of Piperia (Bateman et al. 2009 Ann Bot 104:431–445); study needed. —Scientific Editors: Ronald A. Coleman, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Luer 1975 Orchids US and Can, NY Bot Garden; Coleman 1995 Wild Orchids of California. Cornell Univ.]

Key to Orchidaceae

CALYPSO FAIRY SLIPPER

1 sp., several varieties. (Greek: Kalypso, sea nymph in Homer's Odyssey, from her beauty, secretive behavior)

C. bulbosa (L.) Oakes var. occidentalis (Holz.) B. Boivin
NATIVE
Plant 7–18 cm, ± scapose; caudex corm-like, ± spheric; rhizome 0. Leaf: basal, 1, petioled, blade 3–6.5 cm, elliptic to ovate. Inflorescence: flower 1. Flower: sepals free, 15–25 mm, generally pink; lateral petals sepal-like, lip ± pendent, pouch-like, white-hairy at mouth, ± purple outside, purple-striate inside, base ± red-spotted, distal 1/3 ± concave, white to pink; column 8–11 mm, wide-ovate, hood-like, arched over pouch, generally pink. Fruit: erect.
2n=28. Mesic generally shaded conifer forest; < 1800 m. Northwestern California (except Inner North Coast Ranges), Central Coast, San Francisco Bay Area; to Alaska, Montana. Mar–Jun [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Oct 23 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Calypso, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=55520, accessed on Oct 23 2014

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Calypso bulbosa var. occidentalis Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.