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LILIACEAE LILY FAMILY

Dale W. McNeal, except as noted

Perennial herb from membranous bulb or scaly rhizome. Stem: underground or erect, branched or not. Leaf: basal or cauline, alternate, subopposite, or whorled. Inflorescence: raceme, panicle, ± umbel-like or not. Flower: perianth parts 6 in 2 generally petal-like whorls, often showy; stamens 3 or 6, filaments free or ± fused to perianth, anthers attached at base or near middle; ovary superior or ± so, style 1, entire or 3-lobed. Fruit: capsule or berry. Seed: 3–many, flat or angled, brown to black.
16 genera, 635 species: northern temperate. Users strongly encouraged to protect plants by working around need to see underground parts in using keys, e.g., by trying both leads in couplets solely dependent on such characters. Muscari botryoides (L.) Mill. an historical waif in California. Other TJM (1993) taxa moved to Agavaceae (Agave, Camassia, Chlorogalum, Hastingsia, Hesperocallis, Hesperoyucca, Leucocrinum, Yucca), Alliaceae (Allium, Ipheion, Nothoscordum), Amaryllidaceae (Amaryllis, Narcissus, Pancratium), Asparagaceae (Asparagus), Asphodelaceae (Aloe, Asphodelus, Kniphofia), Melanthiaceae (Pseudotrillium, Stenanthium, Toxicoscordion, Trillium, Veratrum, Xerophyllum), Nartheciaceae (Narthecium), Ruscaceae (Maianthemum, Nolina), Smilacaceae (Smilax), Tecophilaeaceae (Odontostomum), Themidaceae (Androstephium, Bloomeria, Brodiaea, Dichelostemma, Muilla, Triteleia), and Tofieldiaceae (Triantha). North American species of Disporum now in Prosartes. —Scientific Editors: Dale W. McNeal, Thomas J. Rosatti.

Key to Liliaceae

CALOCHORTUS

Peggy L. Fiedler

Bulb coat generally membranous, occasionally fibrous. Stem: scapose or leafy, generally erect, generally branched, bulblets in axils of lower leaves or 0. Leaf: generally linear to lanceolate; basal leaf 1, persistent or not; cauline leaves 0–several, occasionally appearing basal, generally smaller upward, withering or not. Inflorescence: often ± umbel-like; flowers 2–many; bracts 0–several, generally opposite, often paired. Flower: perianth ± closed, spheric to oblong, or open, bell-shaped or ± rotate; sepals generally < petals, generally ± lanceolate (ovate), generally ± glabrous; petals generally widely wedge-shaped, occasionally clawed, generally hairy adaxially, nectary near base; stamens 6, filaments ± flat, often dilated at base, anthers generally attached at base or appearing so; style 1, stigmas 3. Fruit: capsule, septicidal; oblong or linear, generally 3-angled or -winged, chambers 3. Seed: many in 2 rows per chamber, flat, generally ± tan or ± yellow, translucent, or irregular dark brown, often net-like.
± 67 species: western North America, Central America; many cultivated. (Greek: beautiful grass) Bulbs of some eaten by Native Americans. Many taxa variable, difficult to key.
Unabridged references: [Patterson & Givnish 2003 New Phytologist 161:253–264]

Key to Calochortus

C. clavatus S. Watson
NATIVE
Stem: 20–100 cm, coarse, often zigzag, bulblets present. Leaf: basal 10–20 cm, linear, deeply channeled, withering; cauline reduced upward. Inflorescence: flowers 1–6, erect; bracts ± opposite, 4–8 cm, linear to narrowly lanceolate, dilated at base. Flower: perianth cup-shaped; sepals 20–40 mm, lance-ovate, generally marked red-brown near base; petals 30–50 mm, widely wedge-shaped to obovate, clawed, yellow, generally banded darker above nectary, hairs near nectary club-shaped, nectary round, ± depressed, surrounded by fringed membrane, densely short-knobby-hairy; filaments ± 10 mm, not dilated, tapered at anther base, anthers 8–10 mm, oblong, obtuse, red-brown to dark purple. Fruit: 6–9 cm, erect, narrowly lanceolate, angled. Seed: ± flat, tan.
n=8. [Online Interchange]

C. clavatus var. recurvifolius (Hoover) P.L. Fiedl. & Zebell ARROYO DE LA CRUZ MARIPOSA LILY
NATIVE
Stem: 8–20 cm, slender. Leaf: strongly recurved. Flower: petals 40–50 mm, deep yellow; anthers 8–10 mm, deep purple.
Rocky slopes; ± 50 m. s-c Central Coast (nw San Luis Obispo Co.). [Calochortus clavatus S. Watson subsp. recurvifolius (Hoover) Munz] May–Jul [Online Interchange] {CNPS list}

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Next taxon: Calochortus coeruleus

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Dec 22 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Calochortus, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=55456, accessed on Dec 22 2014

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click for enlargement Calochortus clavatus var. recurvifolius
See CalPhotos for additional images
© 2008 Steve Lowens

Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Calochortus clavatus var. recurvifolius Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.