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PLANTAGINACEAE PLANTAIN FAMILY

Margriet Wetherwax, except as noted

Annual to shrub, some aquatic. Leaf: basal or cauline, alternate or opposite (whorled), simple, entire to dentate or lobed, venation generally pinnate; stipules 0. Inflorescence: raceme, spike, or flowers axillary in 1–few-flowered clusters; flowers few to many, each subtended by 1 bract. Flower: unisexual or bisexual, radial or bilateral; sepals 4–5, generally fused at base; corolla 4–5-lobed, scarious or not, persistent or not, generally 2-lipped, upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower generally 3-lobed, spur present or not, tube sac-like at base or not; stamens 2 or 4, alternate corolla lobes, epipetalous, staminode 0 or 1–2, anthers opening by 2 slits; ovary superior, [1]2–4-chambered, style 1, stigma lobes 0 or 2. Fruit: generally a capsule, septicidal, loculicidal, circumscissile, or dehiscing by terminal slits or pores.
110 genera, ± 2000 species: worldwide, especially temperate. [Angiosperm Phylogeny Group 1998 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 85:531–553; Olmstead et al. 2001 Molec Phylogen Evol 16:96–112] Veronicaceae sensu Olmstead et al. Recently treated to include Callitrichaceae, Hippuridaceae, and most non-parasitic California genera of Scrophulariaceae (except Buddleja, Limosella, Mimulus, Myoporum, Scrophularia, Verbascum). California Maurandya moved to Holmgrenanthe and Maurandella. Limnophila ×ludoviciana Thieret an occasional agricultural weed in rice fields. Hebe ×franciscana (Eastw.) Souster, Hebe speciosa (R. Cunn.) Andersen only cultivated. —Scientific Editors: Robert Patterson, Bruce G. Baldwin.

Key to Plantaginaceae

CALLITRICHE WATER-STARWORT

Richard V. Lansdown & Robert E. Preston

Annual [perennial herb], in water or on wet ground; monoecious [dioecious]. Stem: slender, generally ascending under water, floating on surface, or prostrate on ground, generally much-branched. Leaf: generally opposite, 4-ranked, lance-linear to spoon-shaped, entire [lobed]. Inflorescence: flowers 1–2(4) per leaf axil, bracts 2, ± white, generally inflated, or 0. Flower: minute, unisexual; perianth 0. Staminate flower: stamen 1, filament elongate. Pistillate flower: ovary superior, slightly lobed at tip and base, chambers 4, styles 2, thread-like. Fruit: 0.6–1.6[2.4] mm, ± dry, ± grooved lengthwise, splitting into 4 achene-like units.
± 75 species: tropics, temperate. (Greek: beautiful hair, from long linear submerged leaves of some of Medit taxa) [Lansdown 2009 Novon 19:364–369] Taxonomically difficult; mature fruit and 10× magnification needed for identification. Callitriche peploides Nutt. a nursery weed in southern California; Callitriche stenocarpa Hegelm., misappl. to various California taxa, but recorded from many sites in the Rocky Mountains and could be expected in California.
Unabridged references: [Fassett 1951 Rhodora 53:137–155, 161–182, 185–194, 209–222; Philbrick & Jansen 1991 Syst Bot 16:478–491; Philbrick & Les 2000 Aq Bot 68:123–141]

Key to Callitriche

C. heterophylla Pursh
NATIVE
Plant scattered or forming extensive stands, submerged or with floating rosettes, or dense mats when terrestrial. Leaf: submersed leaves linear-oblong; floating, emergent, or terrestrial leaves often present, spoon-shaped leaves often abruptly narrowed to petiole; often with floating rosette. Inflorescence: bracts 2, inflated, persistent in fruit or not. Fruit: subsessile; wing generally 0 or only distal to middle. Varieties poorly distinguished. [Online Interchange]

C. heterophylla var. bolanderi (Hegelm.) Fassett
NATIVE
Fruit: 0.8–1.4 mm.
Submerged, with floating rosettes or becoming stranded at edge of lake, pools, or streams; < 2000 m. California Floristic Province, Modoc Plateau; to British Columbia. Less common in California than Callitriche heterophylla var. heterophylla. Apr–Jul [Online Interchange]
Unabridged synonyms: [Callitriche heterophylla subsp. bolanderi (Hegelm.) Calder & Roy L. Taylor]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Apr 24 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2012. Callitriche, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=55448, accessed on Apr 24 2014

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Bioregions in which Callitriche heterophylla var. bolanderi occurs Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.