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Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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Perennial herb, small, fleshy, generally glabrous; caudex generally underground, unbranched; roots glabrous with bulblets or plantlets or not. Leaf: generally 1 per caudex per year, divided into 2 facing parts with a common stalk,(0)1 sterile and 1(2) fertile (fertile occasionally aborted); sterile photosynthetic part (trophophore) separated from spore-bearing part (sporophore) at to well above ground level; trophophore simple to compound, veins free and forked or netted with included veinlets; sporophore simple to compound, or 0 in young plants. Sporangia: dehiscent into 2 valves, ± 1 mm wide, thick-walled.
10 genera, 80–100 species: ± worldwide, generally rare or overlooked. [Hauk et al. 2003 Molec Phylogen Evol 28:131–151; Kato 1987 Gard Bull Straits Settlem 40:1–14] —Scientific Editors: Alan R. Smith, Bruce G. Baldwin, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged note: Distantly related to most (leptosporangiate) ferns. Haploid (gametophyte) generation underground. Both diploid and haploid generations obligately mycorrhizal. The family Psilotaceae (whisk ferns, 2 genera), sister to Ophioglossaceae, is represented in California (South Coast) by 1 (of 2 total) apparently introduced species, Psilotum nudum (L.) P. Beauv. Psilotum is easily distinguished by the dichotomously branching, almost leafless green stems, lack of roots, and large (2–3 mm) 3-lobed sporangia; sporangia are borne on the adaxial (upper) side of a minute (± 1 mm) forked leaf. Pantrop, subtrop (nearest native populations in Arizona and in Sonora, Mexico); expected in cultivation areas, especially at bases of old palms, possibly brought in on root masses as subterranean gametophytes. [Pryer et al. 2004 Amer J Bot 91:1582–1598]
Key to Ophioglossaceae
Roots smooth, pale yellow, without bulblets or plantlets. Leaf: deciduous; bud glabrous; sporophore and trophophore (or 2 sporophores) joined at or well above ground level; trophophore generally 1–2-pinnate (simple or entire or 0), linear to deltate to ternately triangular, thin to fleshy, pinnae ovate to oblong and midribbed or wedge- to fan-shaped and not midribbed, veins free, forked; sporophore 1–2-pinnate, rarely absent. Sporangia: not sunken in axis; stalk 0 or short.Key to Botrychium
25–35 species: generally temperate to arctic or alpine. (Greek: bunch of grapes, from clusters of sporangia) [Stensvold 2007 Ph.D. Dissertation, Iowa State Univ; Wagner & Wagner 1993 FNANM 2:85–106] Difficult, needs study; most species uncommon, sporadic; good sampling of populations highly desirable in specimens, which must be carefully spread and pressed for identification. Botrychium multifidum moved to Sceptridium. Botrychium pedunculosum W.H. Wagner, differing from Botrychium pinnatum in having trophophore stalk ± = trophophore rachis (vs trophophore stalk 0 to 1/10 trophophore rachis), recently confirmed for California, based on discovery in summer of 2010 near Reynolds Creek, western of Yosemite National Park, Calaveras Co.
Leaf: sporophore, trophophore joined near ground level (may be well above ground in ± young plants), generally at top of leaf sheath, trophophore simple to deeply lobed to 1-pinnate throughout to 2-pinnate in basal pinnae, < 12 cm, ovate in 1-pinnate portion, ternate in large plants with basal pinnae expanded, firm, pinnae touching to well separated, fan- to wedge-shaped, outer margins entire to slightly crenate; sporophore 1-pinnate, deltate to linear, stalk 1–2 × trophophore, branches ascending, well spaced. [Online Interchange]
Leaf: trophophore stalk 10–25 mm, blade 2–5 cm, 1–3 cm wide in 1-pinnate portion, dull blue-green, pinnae strongly overlapping to touching, broadly fan-shaped, not midribbed to midribbed in elongated basal pinnae, broadly attached to rachis and strongly decurrent, side margins of ultimate segments converging at 120–180°, proximal side margin recurved.
Uncommon. In saturated moss or sedge mats around hard water seeps and streamlets; 1500–3200 m. High Cascade Range, High Sierra Nevada, Western Transverse Ranges, San Bernardino Mountains, Warner Mountains, East of Sierra Nevada; to Oregon, eastern North America, Europe, Japan. W North America plants differ genetically from eastern North America plants of this var. and may warrant recognition as distinct variety. [Online Interchange]
Previous taxon: Botrychium simplex var. compositum
Next taxon: Botrychium tunux
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Jul 3 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Botrychium, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=55233, accessed on Jul 3 2015
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|Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Botrychium simplex var. simplex|| Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).
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