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CHENOPODIACEAE GOOSEFOOT FAMILY

Mihai Costea, family description, key to genera, revised by Thomas J. Rosatti & Elizabeth H. Zacharias

Annual to shrub; hairs simple, stellate, or glandular; plants in several genera scaly, mealy, or powdery from collapsed glands; monoecious, dioecious, with bisexual flowers, or with both bisexual and unisexual flowers. Stem: occasionally fleshy. Leaf: blade simple, generally alternate, occasionally fleshy or reduced to scales, veins pinnate; stipules 0. Inflorescence: raceme, spike, catkin-like, spheric head, axillary clusters of flowers, or flowers 1; bracts 0–5, herbaceous, generally persistent or strongly modified in fruit, wings, tubercles or spines present or 0. Flower: bisexual or unisexual, small, generally green; calyx parts (1)3–5, or 0 in pistillate flowers, free or fused basally (or ± throughout), leaf-like in texture, membranous, or fleshy, deciduous or not, often strongly modified in fruit; corolla 0; stamens 1–5, opposite sepals, filaments free, equal; anthers 4-chambered; ovary superior (1/2-inferior), chamber 1; ovule 1; styles, stigmas 1–4 (or stigmas sessile). Fruit: achene or utricle, generally falling with persistent calyx or bracts. Seed: 1, small, lenticular to spheric; seed coat smooth to finely dotted, warty, net-like, or prickly, margin occasionally winged.
100 genera, 1500 species: worldwide, especially deserts, saline or alkaline soils; some cultivated for food (Beta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris, beet, Swiss chard; Spinacia oleracea L., spinach; Chenopodium quinoa Willd., quinoa); and some worldwide, naturalized ruderal or noxious agricultural weeds. Nitrophila treated in Amaranthaceae, Sarcobatus treated in Sarcobataceae. Key to genera revised by Elizabeth H. Zacharias to incorporate Extriplex and Stutzia, 2 genera segregated from Atriplex. —Scientific Editors: Bruce G. Baldwin, David J. Keil, Thomas J. Rosatti.

Key to Chenopodiaceae

ATRIPLEX SALTBUSH, ORACH

Elizabeth H. Zacharias

Generally monoecious annual, to generally dioecious shrub, generally scaly. Leaf: generally alternate, distal ± reduced; blade entire to variously dentate; anatomy Kranz or non-Kranz (see note). Inflorescence: axillary or terminal. Staminate inflorescence: spheric cluster to spike-like or panicle; bracts 0. Pistillate inflorescence: cluster to spike- or panicle-like, occasionally 1; bracts 2 per fruit, enlarged in age, free to variously fused, generally compressed, generally sessile, falling with fruit (or not). Staminate flower: calyx lobes 3–5; stamens 3–5. Pistillate flower: calyx generally ± 0; stigmas 2. Seed: generally erect.
± 250 species: temperate to subtropics worldwide. (Latin: name derived from Greek) [Welsh 2003 FNANM 4:322–381] Generally in alkaline or saline soils; some weedy; some accumulate selenium. Bract descriptions refer to 2 bracts surrounding flower, enlarging in fruit. Australian Atriplex crassipes J.M. Black possibly in South Coast. In this revised taxonomy, Atriplex californica, Atriplex joaquinana moved to Extriplex, Atriplex covillei to Stutzia, both new genera [Zacharias & Baldwin 2010 Syst Bot 35(4):839–857]. Kranz anatomy (observable at 10 ×, sometimes only after scraping off scaly, mealy, or powdery layer) characterized by veins that are darker green than rest of leaf, due to higher concentrations of chloroplasts in bundle-sheath cells surrounding veins.

Key to Atriplex

A. canescens (Pursh) Nutt. FOUR-WING SALTBUSH
NATIVE
Shrub 3–25 dm, erect; branches many. Stem: branches spreading to ascending. Leaf: blade linear to oblanceolate, densely white-scaly; Kranz. Pistillate inflorescence: terminal; bracts in fruit 4–25 mm, generally fused to near tip, ovoid to spheric, hard, wings 4, 3–6 mm wide, entire to wavy or deeply sharp-dentate. Seed: 1.5–2.5 mm. Varieties intergrade. [Online Interchange]
Unabridged synonyms: [Calligonum canescens Pursh; Atriplex nuttallii S. Watson]

A. canescens var. macilenta Jeps. SALTON SALTBUSH
NATIVE
Generally 3–15 dm. Leaf: blade 10–25 mm, oblanceolate to linear, base tapered, tip obtuse. Pistillate inflorescence: bracts in fruit 4–8 mm, wings irregularly dentate.
Saline desert flats, alluvial fans; < 160 m. Sonoran Desert. Polyploid, probably of hybrid origin. Mar–Oct [Online Interchange]

Previous taxon: Atriplex canescens var. linearis
Next taxon: Atriplex confertifolia

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Sep 21 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Atriplex, Revision 1, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=55000, accessed on Sep 21 2014

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Atriplex canescens var. macilenta Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.