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ALLIACEAE ONION or GARLIC FAMILY

Dale W. McNeal

Perennial herb; bulb 1 or on rhizomes, reforming each year; bulblets at bulb bases or on rhizomes; outer bulb coat brown, red-brown, yellow-brown, or gray; inner coats generally white (pink, red, or yellow); onion odor, taste present (except Nothoscordum). Stem: scapose, cylindric, sometimes flat or triangular. Leaf: basal, sheathing stem, linear [or not], cylindric, channeled or flat, generally ± withering from tip by flowering. Inflorescence: umbel (1-flowered in Ipheion), bracts generally 2, splitting and appearing 2+ or not, ± fused, enclosing flower buds, scarious. Flower: perianth parts 6 in 2 petal-like whorls, ± free to fused in lower 1/3–1/2; stamens 6, fused to perianth, filaments widened at base, anthers attached at middle; ovary superior, 3-lobed, chambers 3, ovules 2+ per chamber, style 1, stigma entire or ± 3-lobed. Fruit: capsule, loculicidal. Seed: black, sculpture net-like, smooth, or granular.
13 genera, 750–800 species: worldwide. Many cultivated for food, ornamental. —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.

Key to Alliaceae

ALLIUM ONION, GARLIC
Outer bulb coat generally brown to gray, inner generally white. Stem: scapose, cylindric, triangular in ×-section, or flat. Leaf: basal, 1–5[12] per stem, linear, cylindric, channeled, or flat, generally withering from tip before flower. Inflorescence: umbel, flowers 3–many, rarely all or in part replaced by bulblets; bracts generally 2–4, obvious, ± fused, scarious. Flower: perianth parts ± free, generally with darker or contrasting midvein, outer generally wider; filaments fused into a ring; ovary with 0, 3, or 6 crests, ovules generally 2 per chamber. Seed: obovoid, generally unappendaged.
700 species: generally northern temperate, especially California. (Latin: garlic) [McNeal & Jacobsen 2002 FNANM 26:224–276] Replanting bulbs after study essential for survival of plant; shape, arrangement of cells of outer bulb coat (outer bulb coat sculpture) generally important in identification, generally determined only with magnification; color of outer bulb coat may be masked by substrate; stem lengths from top of bulb to base of inflorescence, not from substrate surface.

Key to Allium

A. howellii Eastw.
NATIVE
Bulb 9–17 mm, ovoid to ± spheric; outer coat red-brown, sculpture 0 or cells ± square, in 2–3 rows basally; inner coats pale brown to white. Stem: (10)15–60 cm. Leaf: 1, 0.7–1.5 × stem, cylindric. Inflorescence: flowers generally 10–100; pedicels 7–25 mm. Flower: 5–8 mm; perianth parts ovate, entire, white to pale lavender, inner ± = outer; ovary crests 6, obvious, irregularly dentate to deeply cut. [Online Interchange]

A. howellii var. howellii
NATIVE
Stem: (10)± 20(35) cm, slender. Inflorescence: flowers generally 10–30; pedicels 7–15 mm. Flower: perianth parts generally pink to lavender (white); stamens exserted 0–2 mm; ovary crests purple.
n=7. Common. Grassy slopes, including serpentine; 200–900 m. s Sierra Nevada Foothills, Tehachapi Mountain Area, San Joaquin Valley, San Francisco Bay Area, South Coast Ranges, Western Transverse Ranges. Mar–Apr [Online Interchange]

Previous taxon: Allium howellii var. clokeyi
Next taxon: Allium howellii var. sanbenitense

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Jul 24 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Allium, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=53800, accessed on Jul 24 2014

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Bioregions in which Allium howellii var. howellii occurs Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.