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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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Perennial herb, shrub, tree. Stem: bark often peeling distinctively. Leaf: simple or 0, generally cauline, alternate, opposite (whorled), evergreen or deciduous, often leathery, petioled or not; stipules 0. Inflorescence: raceme, panicle, cyme, or flowers 1, terminal or axillary, generally bracted; pedicel often with 2 bractlets. Flower: generally bisexual, generally radial, bell-shaped, cylindric, or urn-shaped; sepals generally (0)4–5, generally free; petals generally (0)4–5, free or fused; stamens 8–10, free, filaments rarely appendaged, anthers awned or not, dehiscing by pores or slits; nectary generally present at ovary base, generally disk-like; ovary superior or inferior, chambers generally 1–5, placentas axile or parietal, ovules 1–many per chamber, style 1, stigma head- to funnel-like or lobed. Fruit: capsule, drupe, berry. Seed: generally many, winged or not.
± 100 genera, 3000 species: generally worldwide except deserts; some cultivated, especially Arbutus, Arctostaphylos, Rhododendron, Vaccinium. [Kron et al. 2002 Bot Rev 68:335–423] Monophyletic only if Empetraceae included, as treated here. Ledum included in Rhododendron. Non-green plants obtain nutrition from green plants through fungal intermediates. —Scientific Editors: Gary D. Wallace, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Key to Ericaceae
Shrub, [tree] glabrous to hairy, rhizomed or not, burls generally 0. Stem: trailing to erect. Leaf: cauline, alternate. Inflorescence: raceme or flowers 1, bracted; bud scales present; bractlets generally 2. Flower: sepals 4–5, 2/3 to fully fused; corolla cylindric to urn- or cup-shaped, petals generally 4–5, ± 2/3 fused, generally white; stamens 8 or 10, filaments generally glabrous, anthers elongate, awned or not, dehiscing by pores on small tubes; ovary inferior, chambers 4–5, or appearing 10 by intrusion of ovary wall, placentas axile, stigma head-like. Fruit: berry. Seed: generally many.Key to Vaccinium
400+ species: temperate northern hemisphere, tropical mountains, Africa. (Latin: for Vaccinium myrtillus L.)
Unabridged references: [Vander Kloet 1988 The genus Vaccinium in North America]
Unabridged note: Vaccinium oxycoccos L. reported from California; records lacking.
Shrub, glabrous, rhizomed or not. Stem: erect, < 6 dm, or prostrate, generally rooting; twigs not angled, not green. Leaf: deciduous, 1–2 cm, elliptic to ovate, ± thick, entire, glaucous or not, abaxially visibly but not prominently veined. Inflorescence: generally ± raceme, flowers 1–4 on leafless older shoots; pedicel not jointed to flower, bractlets 0. Flower: calyx lobes 4–5, generally > tube, triangular, persistent; anthers awned. Fruit: < 6 mm diam, blue-black, glaucous.
Bogs, wet meadows; < 3400 m. North Coast, Klamath Ranges, High Cascade Range, High Sierra Nevada; to British Columbia, Montana, Nevada. Part of circumboreal complex needing study. Some North Coast (Big Lagoon, Humboldt Co.) plants with prominently veined leaves, fruit > 6 mm diam may be Vaccinium uliginosum subsp. uliginosum, native to lowland northern Europe. Jun–Jul [Online Interchange]
Previous taxon: Vaccinium scoparium
Next taxon: Xylococcus
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Mar 9 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2012. Vaccinium, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=53312, accessed on Mar 9 2014
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