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MELANTHIACEAE FALSE-HELLEBORE FAMILY

Dale W. McNeal, except as noted

Perennial herb, from rhizome or bulb, or rhizomes ending in weakly developed bulbs, scapose or not. Leaf: alternate, whorled, or mostly basal and spirally arranged, deciduous after 1 year or not. Inflorescence: raceme, panicle, or flowers 1. Flower: perianth parts 6, in 2 petal-like whorls or of sepals and petals, free or fused below, ± spreading; stamens 6, from perianth, anthers attached at base or near middle; ovary superior or partly inferior, chambers 3, styles 3, persistent. Fruit: capsule, loculicidal or septicidal.
10 genera, 130 species: northern hemisphere. W North America Zigadenus moved to Toxicoscordion. —Scientific Editors: Dale W. McNeal, Thomas J. Rosatti.

Key to Melanthiaceae

TRILLIUM WAKEROBIN, TRILLIUM

Dale W. McNeal & Bryan D. Ness

Rhizome short, thick, spreading to erect. Stem: erect, >=1 per rhizome. Leaf: 3, in 1 whorl subtending flower, sessile or subsessile, ± ovate. Inflorescence: flowers 1 per stem, erect to nodding, stalked or sessile. Flower: bisexual; sepals 3, free, persistent, ± green; petals 3, free, withering, white, ± pink, ± yellow, or purple; stamens 6; ovary chambers 3, styles 3. Fruit: capsule, ± berry-like. Seed: many, ovoid.
± 30–40 species: North America, Asia. (Latin: 3, from leaves) [Farmer 2006 Aliso 22:579–592; Freeman 1975 Brittonia 27:1–62] Trillium rivale moved to Pseudotrillium.

Key to Trillium

T. ovatum Pursh WHITE or WESTERN TRILLIUM
NATIVE
Stem: 1–7 dm. Leaf: 4–20 cm, 5–20 cm wide, acute to acuminate at tip, generally green, generally not spotted. Flower: erect to nodding, stalked; petals ascending, 0.5–7 cm, linear to widely obovate, white, aging pink; stamens 1.7–15 mm, tissue between anther sacs yellow or ± white. Fruit: obscurely winged, green or white.
n=5. [Online Interchange]

T. ovatum subsp. oettingeri Munz & Thorne SALMON MOUNTAINS WAKEROBIN
NATIVE
Stem: 1–3 dm. Leaf: ± sessile. Flower: ± nodding; sepals 5–25 mm, 1.5–5.3 mm wide, linear to lance-linear; petals 5–23 mm (often < 15 mm), 1.8–5.5 mm wide, linear to lance-linear.
Mixed montane or conifer forest on moist slopes; 1200–2000 m. c Klamath Ranges (especially Marble Mtns, Siskiyou Co.). Feb–Apr [Online Interchange] {CNPS list}

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Oct 22 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Trillium, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=53275, accessed on Oct 22 2014

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click for enlargement Trillium ovatum subsp. oettingeri
See CalPhotos for additional images
© 1998 John Game

Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Trillium ovatum subsp. oettingeri Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.