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PLANTAGINACEAE PLANTAIN FAMILY

Margriet Wetherwax, except as noted

Annual to shrub, some aquatic. Leaf: basal or cauline, alternate or opposite (whorled), simple, entire to dentate or lobed, venation generally pinnate; stipules 0. Inflorescence: raceme, spike, or flowers axillary in 1–few-flowered clusters; flowers few to many, each subtended by 1 bract. Flower: unisexual or bisexual, radial or bilateral; sepals 4–5, generally fused at base; corolla 4–5-lobed, scarious or not, persistent or not, generally 2-lipped, upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower generally 3-lobed, spur present or not, tube sac-like at base or not; stamens 2 or 4, alternate corolla lobes, epipetalous, staminode 0 or 1–2, anthers opening by 2 slits; ovary superior, [1]2–4-chambered, style 1, stigma lobes 0 or 2. Fruit: generally a capsule, septicidal, loculicidal, circumscissile, or dehiscing by terminal slits or pores.
110 genera, ± 2000 species: worldwide, especially temperate. [Angiosperm Phylogeny Group 1998 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 85:531–553; Olmstead et al. 2001 Molec Phylogen Evol 16:96–112] Veronicaceae sensu Olmstead et al. Recently treated to include Callitrichaceae, Hippuridaceae, and most non-parasitic California genera of Scrophulariaceae (except Buddleja, Limosella, Mimulus, Myoporum, Scrophularia, Verbascum). California Maurandya moved to Holmgrenanthe and Maurandella. Limnophila ×ludoviciana Thieret an occasional agricultural weed in rice fields. Hebe ×franciscana (Eastw.) Souster, Hebe speciosa (R. Cunn.) Andersen only cultivated. —Scientific Editors: Robert Patterson, Bruce G. Baldwin.

Key to Plantaginaceae

SYNTHYRIS

Larry Hufford

Perennial herb, rhizomed. Leaf: basal, deciduous to persistent, long-petioled; blade ovate to round, base acute to cordate, tip acute to rounded, margin serrate, some deeply cut to pinnately lobed. Inflorescence: scapose; axillary raceme fusiform to conical, dense to open; flowers 5–100, bracts subtending flowers or not. Flower: bilateral; sepals 2–4, fused laterally; petals 3–4 or 0, fused basally, bell-shaped [2-lipped], blue to purple-blue or white; stamens 2, epipetalous, exserted; stigmas 2, fused, minutely capped, ovules 2–16. Fruit: loculicidal, laterally flattened, notched at tip. Seed: flattened front-to-back or ± cupped, oval; coat net-like, brown.
19 species: North America. (Greek: united door, from basally united valves of fruit)

Key to Synthyris

S. missurica (Raf.) Pennell subsp. missurica KITTENTAIL
NATIVE
Leaf: petiole <= 27 cm; blade <= 11 cm, <= 15 cm wide, widely ovate, base lobed, tip rounded. Inflorescence: erect in fruit, axis thick, <= 33 cm; flowers 15–100, bracted, sterile bracts <= 3. Flower: corolla <= 10.5 mm, blue, tube glabrous to long-soft-wavy-hairy; filaments <= 9 mm; style <= 8 mm; ovules 10–16. Fruit: <= 8 mm, <= 10 mm wide, glabrous to sparsely hairy. Seed: round, flat.
2n=24,48. Moist forest; 30–2900 m. Warner Mountains; to Washington, Montana. [Synthyris major (Hook.) A. Heller; Synthyris stellata Pennell] Mar–Jul [Online Interchange] {CNPS list}

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Next taxon: Synthyris reniformis

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Jul 28 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Synthyris, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=53168, accessed on Jul 28 2014

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Bioregions in which Synthyris missurica subsp. missurica occurs Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.