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MALVACEAE MALLOW FAMILY

Steven R. Hill, except as noted

Annual to tree; generally with stellate hairs, often with bristles or peltate scales; juice generally mucilage-like; bark fibrous. Leaf: generally cauline, alternate, petioled, simple [palmate-compound], generally palmate-lobed and/or veined, generally toothed, evergreen or not; stipules persistent or not. Inflorescence: head, spike, raceme, or panicle, in panicle or not (a compound panicle), or flowers >= 1 in leaf axils, or flowers generally 1 opposite a leaf or on a spur; bracts leaf-like or not; bractlets 0 or on flowering stalks, often closely subtending calyx, generally in involucel. Flower: generally bisexual, radial; sepals 5, generally fused at base, abutting in bud, larger in fruit or not, nectaries as tufts of glandular hairs at base; petals (0)5, free from each other but generally fused at base to, falling with filament tube, clawed or not; stamens 5–many, filaments fused for most of length into tube around style, staminodes 5, alternate stamens, or generally 0; pistil 1, ovary superior, stalked or generally not, chambers generally >= 5, styles or style branches, stigmas generally 1 or 1–2 × chamber number. Fruit: loculicidal capsule, [berry], or 5–many, disk- or wedge-shaped segments (= mericarps).
266 genera, 4025 species: worldwide, especially warm regions; some cultivated (e.g., Abelmoschus okra; Alcea hollyhock; Gossypium cotton; Hibiscus hibiscus). [Angiosperm Phylogeny Group 1998 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 85:531–553] Recently treated to include Bombacaceae, Sterculiaceae, Tiliaceae. Mature fruit needed for identification; "outer edges" are surfaces between sides and back (abaxial surface) of segment. "Flower stalk" used instead of "pedicel," "peduncle," especially where both needed (i.e., when flowers both 1 in leaf axils and otherwise). —Scientific Editors: Steven R. Hill, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Alverson et al. 1999 Amer J Bot 86:1474–1486; Bayer et al. 1999 Bot J Linn Soc 129:267–303; Hill 2009 Madroño 56:104–111]

Key to Malvaceae

SIDALCEA CHECKERBLOOM
Annual, perennial herb; with taproot, clustered fleshy roots, caudex, adventitious roots, or occasionally shallow rhizome. Stem: ± decumbent or generally erect, some occasionally stolon-like; erect stem, branches terminating in inflorescence. Leaf: generally fewer above, occasionally ± rosetted; petioles below generally >> petioles above; blades below generally crenate to shallowly lobed, blades above often deeply palmate-lobed or -divided; stipules generally persistent. Inflorescence: head, spike, or raceme, in panicle or not, generally more open in fruit; bracts 2, generally stipule-like, occasionally involucre-like, united at base to ± entirely; bractlets 0(3), generally not in involucel. Flower: flowers generally bisexual, protandrous, occasionally functionally unisexual (occasionally, plants with either bisexual or pistillate flowers in a given sp.); calyx lobes >= tube; petals spreading or erect, purple or rose-pink to white, generally with some pale veins, base generally also paler than tips (occasionally darker), tip ± notched or fringed, petals on pistillate flowers shorter, darker, often <= 10 mm; filament tube generally stellate-puberulent, anthers near top, in generally 2 concentric series, generally pink, ± purple, or white; stigmas linear, on inner side of style branches, conspicuous in pistillate flowers. Fruit: segments generally 5–10, indehiscent, puberulent, glandular, or glabrous, beaked or not, side walls generally ± thin. Seed: 1, generally filling chamber, reniform, glabrous.
± 27 species: western North America: Alaska, Canada, to Mexico. (Greek: combination of Sida, Alcea, 2 other names for mallows) [Andreasen & Baldwin 2003 Amer J Bot 90:436–444; Hill 2008 J Bot Res Inst Texas 2:783–791] Some species highly variable, especially in leaves, growth stage; mature plants with fruit minimize considerable problems in identification, as does knowledge of plant base, underground parts; needs study.
Unabridged references: [Hitchcock 1957 Univ Washington Publ Biol 18:1–96; Fryxell 1988 Syst Bot Monogr 25:412–416]
Unabridged note: This treatment differs from that in TJM (1993) in addition of new taxa and in segregation as species of former, primarily inland subspecies of Sidalcea malviflora, now primarily a coastal entity.

Key to Sidalcea

S. oregana (Torr. & A. Gray) A. Gray
NATIVE
Perennial herb 3–15 dm, taproot woody, crown branched, caudex 0. Stem: generally clustered (rooting near base); base glabrous to coarsely stellate-hairy to long-bristly. Leaf: basal and cauline; blade 3–10(15) cm wide, glabrous to hairy, lower crenate to deeply lobed, upper deeply (3)5–7-lobed, uppermost simple to 2–3 lobed, lobes narrow, entire to deeply lobed. Inflorescence: dense to open, generally ± spike-like, in panicle or not; flowering stalks generally 1–3 mm. Flower: calyx 3.5–9 mm, generally ± 5 mm, lobes lanceolate, glabrous to densely stellate-puberulent or bristly; petals (7)10–20 mm, pink to dark rose-pink. Fruit: segment 2–3 mm, smooth to weakly net-veined-pitted, sparsely glandular-puberulent, not stellate-hairy, beak 0.3–0.7 mm. [Online Interchange]
Unabridged note: Within genus, source of most cultivars currently in nursery trade, some of which mistakenly called Sidalcea malviflora, also in cultivation but much less commonly.

S. oregana subsp. spicata (Regel) C.L. Hitchc.
NATIVE
Plant 3–8 dm. Stem: generally several, base soft stellate-hairy, occasionally long-bristly, hairs 1–2 mm, toward tip occasionally glabrous. Inflorescence: often in panicle, generally dense in flower, open in fruit; bracts generally > youngest flower buds, flowering stalks ± 2 mm. Flower: calyx (3.5)5(7) mm, generally densely bristly, stellate-puberulent (or stellate-puberulent only), hairs to 2.5 mm; petals generally 10–15 mm, pink to rose-pink or magenta. Fruit: segment 2.5–3 mm, generally smooth, sides occasionally weakly net-veined, back sparsely glandular-puberulent, beak 0.1–0.3 mm.
2n=20,40. Meadows, streamsides; 975–3000 m. Klamath Ranges, n High North Coast Ranges, High Cascade Range, n&c High Sierra Nevada, Great Basin Floristic Province; Oregon, western Nevada. May be confused with other subspecies, as well as with Sidalcea setosa. Jun–Aug [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Dec 20 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Sidalcea, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=53000, accessed on Dec 20 2014

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click for enlargement Sidalcea oregana subsp. spicata
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2002 George W. Hartwell

Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Sidalcea oregana subsp. spicata Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.