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Annual to tree; generally with stellate hairs, often with bristles or peltate scales; juice generally mucilage-like; bark fibrous. Leaf: generally cauline, alternate, petioled, simple [palmate-compound], generally palmate-lobed and/or veined, generally toothed, evergreen or not; stipules persistent or not. Inflorescence: head, spike, raceme, or panicle, in panicle or not (a compound panicle), or flowers >= 1 in leaf axils, or flowers generally 1 opposite a leaf or on a spur; bracts leaf-like or not; bractlets 0 or on flowering stalks, often closely subtending calyx, generally in involucel. Flower: generally bisexual, radial; sepals 5, generally fused at base, abutting in bud, larger in fruit or not, nectaries as tufts of glandular hairs at base; petals (0)5, free from each other but generally fused at base to, falling with filament tube, clawed or not; stamens 5–many, filaments fused for most of length into tube around style, staminodes 5, alternate stamens, or generally 0; pistil 1, ovary superior, stalked or generally not, chambers generally >= 5, styles or style branches, stigmas generally 1 or 1–2 × chamber number. Fruit: loculicidal capsule, [berry], or 5–many, disk- or wedge-shaped segments (= mericarps).
266 genera, 4025 species: worldwide, especially warm regions; some cultivated (e.g., Abelmoschus okra; Alcea hollyhock; Gossypium cotton; Hibiscus hibiscus). [Angiosperm Phylogeny Group 1998 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 85:531–553] Recently treated to include Bombacaceae, Sterculiaceae, Tiliaceae. Mature fruit needed for identification; "outer edges" are surfaces between sides and back (abaxial surface) of segment. "Flower stalk" used instead of "pedicel," "peduncle," especially where both needed (i.e., when flowers both 1 in leaf axils and otherwise). —Scientific Editors: Steven R. Hill, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Alverson et al. 1999 Amer J Bot 86:1474–1486; Bayer et al. 1999 Bot J Linn Soc 129:267–303; Hill 2009 Madroño 56:104–111]
Key to Malvaceae
Annual, perennial herb; with taproot, clustered fleshy roots, caudex, adventitious roots, or occasionally shallow rhizome. Stem: ± decumbent or generally erect, some occasionally stolon-like; erect stem, branches terminating in inflorescence. Leaf: generally fewer above, occasionally ± rosetted; petioles below generally >> petioles above; blades below generally crenate to shallowly lobed, blades above often deeply palmate-lobed or -divided; stipules generally persistent. Inflorescence: head, spike, or raceme, in panicle or not, generally more open in fruit; bracts 2, generally stipule-like, occasionally involucre-like, united at base to ± entirely; bractlets 0(3), generally not in involucel. Flower: flowers generally bisexual, protandrous, occasionally functionally unisexual (occasionally, plants with either bisexual or pistillate flowers in a given sp.); calyx lobes >= tube; petals spreading or erect, purple or rose-pink to white, generally with some pale veins, base generally also paler than tips (occasionally darker), tip ± notched or fringed, petals on pistillate flowers shorter, darker, often <= 10 mm; filament tube generally stellate-puberulent, anthers near top, in generally 2 concentric series, generally pink, ± purple, or white; stigmas linear, on inner side of style branches, conspicuous in pistillate flowers. Fruit: segments generally 5–10, indehiscent, puberulent, glandular, or glabrous, beaked or not, side walls generally ± thin. Seed: 1, generally filling chamber, reniform, glabrous.Key to Sidalcea
± 27 species: western North America: Alaska, Canada, to Mexico. (Greek: combination of Sida, Alcea, 2 other names for mallows) [Andreasen & Baldwin 2003 Amer J Bot 90:436–444; Hill 2008 J Bot Res Inst Texas 2:783–791] Some species highly variable, especially in leaves, growth stage; mature plants with fruit minimize considerable problems in identification, as does knowledge of plant base, underground parts; needs study.
Unabridged references: [Hitchcock 1957 Univ Washington Publ Biol 18:1–96; Fryxell 1988 Syst Bot Monogr 25:412–416]
Unabridged note: This treatment differs from that in TJM (1993) in addition of new taxa and in segregation as species of former, primarily inland subspecies of Sidalcea malviflora, now primarily a coastal entity.
Perennial herb 3–15 dm, taproot woody, crown branched, caudex 0. Stem: generally clustered (rooting near base); base glabrous to coarsely stellate-hairy to long-bristly. Leaf: basal and cauline; blade 3–10(15) cm wide, glabrous to hairy, lower crenate to deeply lobed, upper deeply (3)5–7-lobed, uppermost simple to 2–3 lobed, lobes narrow, entire to deeply lobed. Inflorescence: dense to open, generally ± spike-like, in panicle or not; flowering stalks generally 1–3 mm. Flower: calyx 3.5–9 mm, generally ± 5 mm, lobes lanceolate, glabrous to densely stellate-puberulent or bristly; petals (7)10–20 mm, pink to dark rose-pink. Fruit: segment 2–3 mm, smooth to weakly net-veined-pitted, sparsely glandular-puberulent, not stellate-hairy, beak 0.3–0.7 mm. [Online Interchange]
Unabridged note: Within genus, source of most cultivars currently in nursery trade, some of which mistakenly called Sidalcea malviflora, also in cultivation but much less commonly.
Plant 3–15 dm. Stem: many, base stellate-hairy, occasionally bristly, above less hairy, occasionally glabrous. Inflorescence: in panicle or not, to 3 dm, flowers generally not overlapped, especially in fruit; flowering stalks 2–10 mm, generally 3 mm in flower, 5 mm in fruit; bracts generally < youngest flower buds. Flower: calyx generally 5–8 mm, to 10 mm in fruit, generally densely stellate-puberulent to long-bristly, marginal hairs occasionally longer; petals generally 5–15 mm. Fruit: segment 2.5–3 mm, generally glabrous, back generally smooth, sides occasionally net-veined, beak 0.3–0.7 mm.
2n=20,40,60. Moist meadows; 500–2500 m. Northwestern California, Cascade Range, Modoc Plateau; to Washington, Wyoming, Nevada. Variable; intergrades with Sidalcea oregana subsp. spicata, Sidalcea setosa C.L. Hitchc. May–Sep [Online Interchange]
Unabridged note: C.L. Hitchcock referred ± all California plants of Sidalcea oregana subsp. oregana to Sidalcea oregana var. maxima (M. Peck) C.L. Hitchc.
Previous taxon: Sidalcea oregana subsp. hydrophila
Next taxon: Sidalcea oregana subsp. spicata
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Jul 2 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Sidalcea, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=52999, accessed on Jul 2 2015
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|Sidalcea oregana subsp. oregana|
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© 2008 George W. Hartwell
|Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Sidalcea oregana subsp. oregana|| Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).
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