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Annual to tree; generally with stellate hairs, often with bristles or peltate scales; juice generally mucilage-like; bark fibrous. Leaf: generally cauline, alternate, petioled, simple [palmate-compound], generally palmate-lobed and/or veined, generally toothed, evergreen or not; stipules persistent or not. Inflorescence: head, spike, raceme, or panicle, in panicle or not (a compound panicle), or flowers >= 1 in leaf axils, or flowers generally 1 opposite a leaf or on a spur; bracts leaf-like or not; bractlets 0 or on flowering stalks, often closely subtending calyx, generally in involucel. Flower: generally bisexual, radial; sepals 5, generally fused at base, abutting in bud, larger in fruit or not, nectaries as tufts of glandular hairs at base; petals (0)5, free from each other but generally fused at base to, falling with filament tube, clawed or not; stamens 5–many, filaments fused for most of length into tube around style, staminodes 5, alternate stamens, or generally 0; pistil 1, ovary superior, stalked or generally not, chambers generally >= 5, styles or style branches, stigmas generally 1 or 1–2 × chamber number. Fruit: loculicidal capsule, [berry], or 5–many, disk- or wedge-shaped segments (= mericarps).
266 genera, 4025 species: worldwide, especially warm regions; some cultivated (e.g., Abelmoschus okra; Alcea hollyhock; Gossypium cotton; Hibiscus hibiscus). [Angiosperm Phylogeny Group 1998 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 85:531–553] Recently treated to include Bombacaceae, Sterculiaceae, Tiliaceae. Mature fruit needed for identification; "outer edges" are surfaces between sides and back (abaxial surface) of segment. "Flower stalk" used instead of "pedicel," "peduncle," especially where both needed (i.e., when flowers both 1 in leaf axils and otherwise). —Scientific Editors: Steven R. Hill, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Alverson et al. 1999 Amer J Bot 86:1474–1486; Bayer et al. 1999 Bot J Linn Soc 129:267–303; Hill 2009 Madroño 56:104–111]
Key to Malvaceae
Annual, perennial herb; with taproot, clustered fleshy roots, caudex, adventitious roots, or occasionally shallow rhizome. Stem: ± decumbent or generally erect, some occasionally stolon-like; erect stem, branches terminating in inflorescence. Leaf: generally fewer above, occasionally ± rosetted; petioles below generally >> petioles above; blades below generally crenate to shallowly lobed, blades above often deeply palmate-lobed or -divided; stipules generally persistent. Inflorescence: head, spike, or raceme, in panicle or not, generally more open in fruit; bracts 2, generally stipule-like, occasionally involucre-like, united at base to ± entirely; bractlets 0(3), generally not in involucel. Flower: flowers generally bisexual, protandrous, occasionally functionally unisexual (occasionally, plants with either bisexual or pistillate flowers in a given sp.); calyx lobes >= tube; petals spreading or erect, purple or rose-pink to white, generally with some pale veins, base generally also paler than tips (occasionally darker), tip ± notched or fringed, petals on pistillate flowers shorter, darker, often <= 10 mm; filament tube generally stellate-puberulent, anthers near top, in generally 2 concentric series, generally pink, ± purple, or white; stigmas linear, on inner side of style branches, conspicuous in pistillate flowers. Fruit: segments generally 5–10, indehiscent, puberulent, glandular, or glabrous, beaked or not, side walls generally ± thin. Seed: 1, generally filling chamber, reniform, glabrous.Key to Sidalcea
± 27 species: western North America: Alaska, Canada, to Mexico. (Greek: combination of Sida, Alcea, 2 other names for mallows) [Andreasen & Baldwin 2003 Amer J Bot 90:436–444; Hill 2008 J Bot Res Inst Texas 2:783–791] Some species highly variable, especially in leaves, growth stage; mature plants with fruit minimize considerable problems in identification, as does knowledge of plant base, underground parts; needs study.
Unabridged references: [Hitchcock 1957 Univ Washington Publ Biol 18:1–96; Fryxell 1988 Syst Bot Monogr 25:412–416]
Unabridged note: This treatment differs from that in TJM (1993) in addition of new taxa and in segregation as species of former, primarily inland subspecies of Sidalcea malviflora, now primarily a coastal entity.
Perennial herb 1.5–10 dm, generally rhizomed, caudex woody. Stem: generally hairy. Leaf: generally dentate or lobed (entire), upper generally much reduced. Inflorescence: dense to open; lowest bracts often leaf-like, generally divided to base; bractlets 0. Flower: calyx 5–12 mm, ± larger in fruit, generally densely stellate-puberulent, bristly, bristles often on swollen pad; petals 10–20(35) mm, bright to dark pink, generally white-veined. Fruit: segment 2.5–4 mm, ± deeply pitted, net-veined, generally more so on sides than back, beak generally short.
2n=20,40,60. Highly variable intergrading complex, many local variants; inland upland taxa probably do not belong in this sp., study needed. [Online Interchange]
Plant 1.5–6 dm. Stem: decumbent at base, rooting, generally densely coarsely stellate-hairy, spreading-bristly especially at base. Leaf: blade 2–6 cm wide, 7–9-lobed, generally ± coarsely hairy, ± fleshy, upper more deeply lobed or not. Inflorescence: generally unbranched; flowers close but ± evenly spaced. Flower: calyx densely stellate-puberulent, coarsely bristly, bristles often on swollen pad, hairs at base shorter, denser, marginal longer; petals 1–2.5 cm, pink to rose, white-veined. Fruit: segment 3.5–4 mm, ± sparsely glandular-puberulent, net-veined-pitted, beak short.
2n=40,60. Coastal prairie, scrub, open forest; generally < 500 m. s North Coast, Outer North Coast Ranges, Central Coast, San Francisco Bay Area, South Coast, n Channel Islands. Intergrades with most other subspecies. Once common in, now generally extirpated from Los Angeles area. Mar–Jul [Online Interchange]
Unabridged note: Probably the most difficult of the subspecies to identify, partly because of changing concepts of the sp., it should have obviously lobed leaves, but not as finely divided as Sidalcea malviflora subsp. laciniata. Next to Sidalcea malviflora subsp. rostrata, often closest to coast. Probably has been the subsp. most damaged or modified by coastal development, resulting in local extinctions or intermediate forms. Probably the purest populations, genetically, remain on the northern Channel Islands because of their isolation.
Previous taxon: Sidalcea malviflora subsp. laciniata
Next taxon: Sidalcea malviflora subsp. patula
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Oct 10 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Sidalcea, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=52987, accessed on Oct 10 2015
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|Sidalcea malviflora subsp. malviflora|
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© 2007 Neal Kramer
|Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Sidalcea malviflora subsp. malviflora|| Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).
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