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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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Shrub, tree, evergreen; monoecious. Stem: young crown conic; twig not grooved, resinous, generally persistent. Leaf: simple, generally alternate, sometimes in bundles or appearing ± 2-ranked, linear or awl-like; base decurrent, woody or not, persistent several years. Pollen cone: generally < 6 cm, not woody, deciduous. Seed cone: generally woody; bracts, scales generally persistent; scale not peltate, fused to or free from subtending bract. Seed: 2, on scale base adaxially.
10 genera, 193 species: generally northern hemisphere; many of great commercial value, supplying > 1/2 of world's timber. —Scientific Editors: Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Unabridged references: [Thieret 1993 FNANM 2:352–398]
Key to Pinaceae
Stem: young crown conic, mature often rounded or flat; branches ± whorled in young plants; young bark smooth, mature furrowed; bud ± conic, generally resinous. Leaf: generally 2.5–35 cm, generally sessile, in bundles of (1)2–5; bundles 1 in axils of alternate, awl-like bracts, base in a sometimes deciduous, scaly sheath of bracts, generally persistent several years. Seed cone: often whorled, generally maturing, opening 2nd year, persistent on stem or not; stalk 0 or < 16 cm; bract included, fused to scale at least basally, minute; scale tip reflexed, elongated 3–7 cm or often with a rounded or angled, often prickled knob < 3 cm. Seed: coat hard, woody or not.Key to Pinus
94 species: northern hemisphere. (Latin: pine) Pinus pinea L., stone pine (leaves 2 per bundle, 10–30 cm; seed cone 8–15 cm, maturing in 3 years) cultivated in Europe for over 6000 years for edible seeds (pine nuts), reportedly naturalized in San Francisco Bay Area, northern Channel Islands.
Unabridged references: [Millar & Critchfield 1988 Madroño 35:39–53]
Unabridged note: Morphological, genetic study of relationships among Pinus jeffreyi, Pinus ponderosa, and Pinus washoensis indicates that the taxa should be classified as 2 species, Pinus jeffreyi and Pinus ponderosa, and that the latter comprises three vars.: Pinus ponderosa var. pacifica (new taxon), Pinus ponderosa var. ponderosa, and Pinus ponderosa var. washoensis (new combination).
Stem: trunk generally 1, < 22 m, < 2.6 m wide; mature crown branches short, thick. Leaf: 5 per bundle, 1.5–4 cm, curved, stiff, ± blue- or yellow-green, adaxially ± white, tip acute, sharp to touch; sheath deciduous. Seed cone: pendent, 6–19 cm, ovoid; stalk 7–16 mm; scale tip knob angled, prickle <= 1 mm. Seed: < wing. [Online Interchange]
Stem: mature bark thick, red-brown, in ± squared plates. Leaf: ± yellow-green, persisting < 30 years.
Subalpine forest; 2700–3700 m. s High Sierra Nevada. In some ways more like Pinus longaeva than Pinus balfouriana subsp. balfouriana. [Online Interchange]
Previous taxon: Pinus balfouriana
Next taxon: Pinus balfouriana subsp. balfouriana
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on May 26 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Pinus, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=52298, accessed on May 26 2015
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|Pinus balfouriana subsp. austrina|
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© 2004 Hartmut Wisch
|Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Pinus balfouriana subsp. austrina|| Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).
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