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Key to families | Table of families and genera

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Lincoln Constance & Margriet Wetherwax, except as noted

Annual to perennial herb [shrub, tree], generally from taproot. Stem: generally ± scapose, generally ribbed, hollow. Leaf: basal and generally cauline, generally alternate; stipules generally 0; petiole base generally sheathing stem; blade generally much dissected, occasionally compound. Inflorescence: umbel or head, simple or compound, generally peduncled; bracts present in involucres or 0; bractlets generally present in "involucels". Flower: many, small, generally bisexual (or some staminate), generally radial (or outer bilateral); calyx 0 or lobes 5, small; petals 5, free, generally ovate or spoon-shaped, generally incurved at tips, generally ± ephemeral; stamens 5; pistil 1, ovary inferior, 2-chambered, generally with a ± conic, persistent projection or platform at tip subtending 2 free styles. Fruit: 2 dry, 1-seeded halves (= mericarps), separating from each other but generally ± persistent to central axis; ribs on halves 5, 2 marginal, 3 to back; oil tubes 1–several per interval between ribs.
300 genera, 3000 species: ± worldwide, especially temperate; many cultivated for food or spice (e.g., Carum, caraway; Daucus; Petroselinum); Bupleurum lancifolium Hornem. is historical garden weed; some toxic (e.g., Conium). Mature fruit generally critical in identification, shape given in outline. Hydrocotyle moved to Araliaceae. Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) A.W. Hill is a waif. —Scientific Editors: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.

Key to Apiaceae

Perennial herb, glabrous, generally glaucous; roots tuberous, single or clustered, or clustered-fibrous. Stem: erect, branched. Leaf: blade lanceolate to triangular-ovate, generally 1–2-ternate-pinnate or 1–2-pinnately or ternate-pinnately dissected, leaflets or segments generally linear to lance-linear. Inflorescence: umbels compound; bracts 0–many, conspicuous and reflexed or not; bractlets several to many, narrow, ± scarious; rays, pedicels few to many, generally spreading-ascending; 2° umbels generally convex distally. Flower: calyx lobes evident; petals generally obovate, white, tips narrowed. Fruit: linear-oblong, ± compressed side-to-side or not at all, glabrous; ribs ± equal, thread-like to prominent, not winged; oil tubes 1–several per rib-interval; fruit axis divided to base. Seed: face flat to grooved.
± 12 species: generally western America. (Greek: around the neck, from involucre) [Chuang & Constance 1969 Univ Calif Publ Bot 55:1–74] Roots, basal leaves needed for identification.

Key to Perideridia

P. gairdneri (Hook. & Arn.) Mathias
Plant 3–14 dm; roots 2–3-clustered or 1, 1.5–8 cm, fusiform. Leaf: basal petiole 8–15 cm; basal blade 20–35 cm, oblong to ovate, generally 1-pinnate, leaflets 2–12 cm, linear or lanceolate, basal occasionally lobed or ternately dissected; cauline leaves 1–2-pinnate or 1–2-ternate. Inflorescence: peduncle 3–20 cm; bracts generally 0; bractlets 8–13, 1–4 mm, lance-linear; rays 1.5–7 cm, unequal, spreading-ascending; pedicels 4–8 mm; 2° umbels 15–40-flowered. Flower: styles 1–2 mm. Fruit: 2.5–3.5 mm, ± round; ribs thread-like; oil tube 1 per rib-interval. Subspecies possibly distinct species. [Online Interchange]

P. gairdneri subsp. borealis T.I. Chuang & Constance
Plant ± rigid; roots tuberous, 2–3-clustered, < 10–15 mm wide. Inflorescence: rays generally 11–16. Flower: petals 5- or 7-veined.
2n=40,80,120. Generally moist soil of flats, meadows, streamsides; < 3000 m. Klamath Ranges, High North Coast Ranges, Warner Mountains; to southwestern Canada, South Dakota. Jun–Aug [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Mar 31 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Perideridia, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Mar 31 2015

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Perideridia gairdneri subsp. borealis Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.