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Annual, perennial herb, shrub; often glandular; root-parasites, roots modified into absorptive structures. Stem: generally round in ×-section. Leaf: generally simple, generally alternate, reduced to ± fleshy scales in non-green plants lacking chlorophyll; stipules generally 0. Inflorescence: spike to panicle, generally bracted, or flowers 1–2 in axils. Flower: bisexual; calyx lobes 0–5; corolla generally strongly bilateral, generally 2-lipped (upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower lip generally 3-lobed), abaxial lobes outside other lobes in bud; stamens epipetalous, 4 in 2 pairs (sometimes 1 pair sterile), additional staminode 0(1), anther sacs unequal; ovary superior, chambers 1–2, placentas 2–4, parietal, style 1, stigma lobes 0 or 2. Fruit: capsule, generally ± ovoid, loculicidal, valves 2–4. Seed: many, small, angled; surface smooth or netted.
99 genera, 2060 species: worldwide, especially northern temperate and Africa. [Bennett & Matthews 2006 Amer J Bot 93:1039–1051] High yield losses in many crops caused by Orobanche species in Africa, Mediterranean, Middle East, and eastern Europe. —Scientific Editors: Robert Patterson, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Key to Orobanchaceae
Annual, green. Leaf: alternate, sessile, entire to 3-lobed. Inflorescence: spike; bracts generally distinct from leaves, 1 per flower, entire to 5-lobed, tips generally colored. Flower: calyx unequally 4-lobed, deepest sinus adaxial; corolla club-shaped, upper lip folded lengthwise, tip rounded, closed, opening directed downward forming a hood enclosing anthers and style, lower lip shorter, ± 3-pouched, (0)3-toothed; stamens 4, anther sacs 2, unequal; style, stigma slender. Fruit: generally ± notched. Seed: generally 8–15, often ± curved, ± keeled, attached at side; coat netted or ridged, tight-fitting.Key to Orthocarpus
9 species: western North America. (Greek: straight fruit) [Chuang & Heckard 1992 Syst Bot 17:560–582] Close to Cordylanthus; other species formerly placed here are Castilleja (owl's-clovers) or Triphysaria (Johnny-tuck).
Plant 10–40 cm, puberulent to scabrous, sparsely glandular, becoming ± purple-tinged. Stem: simple to much-branched, generally slender. Leaf: 10–50 mm, ± lanceolate; proximal entire, distal with 3 deep, linear lobes. Inflorescence: 2–10 cm, dense; bracts differing abruptly from distal leaves, 10–20 mm, ± ovate, ± purple-pink on distal 1/3 of distal-most bracts, with 2 narrow, ± basal lobes, central lobe 7–15 mm wide, tip abruptly pointed. Flower: calyx 7–10 mm, divided 1/2 abaxially, 2/3 adaxially, 1/4 on sides; corolla 9–25 mm, exserted or not, lips ± purple-pink, densely puberulent, beak straight, without cylindric, hooked tip, 3–8 mm, 0–4 mm > lower lip, lower lip ± pouched, teeth 1–2 mm, triangular, densely puberulent; stigma well included. Fruit: 6–8 mm. Seed: dark brown.
2n=28. [Online Interchange]
Flower: corolla 9–14 mm, included, ± hidden by bract, beak 3–4 mm, 0–1 mm > lower lip, pouches 1–2 mm deep; upper anther sac 0.7–1 mm.
Drying meadows, open sagebrush; 1500–3200 m. High Cascade Range, n&c High Sierra Nevada, Great Basin Floristic Province; to Oregon, north-central United States. [Orthocarpus copelandii var. cryptanthus (Piper) D.D. Keck] Jun–Aug [Online Interchange]
Previous taxon: Orthocarpus cuspidatus subsp. copelandii
Next taxon: Orthocarpus cuspidatus subsp. cuspidatus
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Feb 1 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Orthocarpus, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=51848, accessed on Feb 1 2015
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|Orthocarpus cuspidatus subsp. cryptanthus|
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© 2003 Steve Matson
|Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Orthocarpus cuspidatus subsp. cryptanthus|| Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).
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