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ASTERACEAE (Compositae) SUNFLOWER FAMILY

David J. Keil, except as noted

Annual to tree. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, alternate, opposite, rarely whorled, simple to 2+ × compound. Inflorescence: 1° inflorescence a head, resembling a flower, of several types (see below), 1–many in generally ± cyme-like cluster; each head generally with ± calyx-like involucre of 1–many series of phyllaries (involucral bracts); receptacle of head flat to conic or columnar, paleate (bearing paleae = receptacle bracts) or epaleate; flowers 1–many per head. Flower: bisexual, unisexual, or sterile, ± small, of several types (see below); calyx 0 or modified into ± persistent pappus of bristles, scales, and/or awns; corolla radial or bilateral (0), lobes generally (0)3–5; stamens 4–5, filaments generally free, generally fused to corolla at tube/throat junction, anthers generally fused into cylinder around style, anther base generally rounded or cordate (deeply sagittate or with tail-like appendages), tip (= flattened appendage) generally projecting beyond pollen sac; pistil 1, 2-carpeled, ovary inferior, 1-chambered, 1-seeded, placenta basal, style 1, tip generally ± 2-branched (except in some staminate disk flowers), branch tips truncate or generally bearing ± brush-like appendages; stigmas 2, generally on adaxial faces of style branches. Fruit: achene (also called a cypsela) (drupe in Chrysanthemoides), cylindric to ovoid, sometimes compressed, generally deciduous with pappus attached.
± 1500 genera, 23000 species: worldwide, many habitats. Flower and head types differ in form and sexual condition. A disk flower has a generally radial corolla, with a cylindric tube, expanded throat, and generally 5 lobes. Disk flowers are generally bisexual and fertile but occasionally staminate with reduced ovaries. Discoid heads comprise only disk flowers. A radiant head is a variant of a discoid head, with peripheral disk flower corollas expanded, often bilateral. A ray flower corolla is bilateral, generally with a slender tube and flattened petal-like ray (single lip composed of generally 3 lobes). Ray flowers are generally pistillate or sterile (occasionally lacking styles). Radiate heads have peripheral ray flowers and central disk flowers. Disciform heads superficially resemble discoid heads, with pistillate or sterile flowers that lack rays, together with or separate from disk flowers. A ligulate flower is bisexual, with a bilateral, generally ephemeral corolla and 5-lobed ligule. Liguliflorous heads comprise only ligulate flowers. See glossary p. 31 for illustrations of family characteristics. Echinops sphaerocephalus L., Gaillardia aristata Pursh, Gaillardia pulchella Foug., Hymenothrix loomisii S.F. Blake, Tagetes erecta L., Thelesperma megapotamicum (Spreng.) Kuntze are waifs. Melampodium perfoliatum Kunth, historic urban waif. Ageratum conyzoides L., Guizotia abyssinica (L. f.) Cass., Santolina chamaecyparisus L., orth. var. are rare or uncommon escapes from cultivation. Dyssodia papposa, Ismelia carinata (Schousb.) Sch. Bip. [Chrysanthemum carinatum Schousb.], Mantisalca salmantica (L.) Briq. & Cavill. are historical or extirpated waifs in California. Inula helenium L. not documented in California. Taxa of Aster in TJM (1993) treated here in Almutaster, Eucephalus, Eurybia, Ionactis, Oreostemma, Sericocarpus, Symphyotrichum; Chamomilla in Matricaria; Cnicus in Centaurea; Conyza in Erigeron and Laennecia; Dugaldia in Hymenoxys; Erechtites in Senecio; Hymenoclea in Ambrosia; Lembertia in Monolopia; Osteospermum ecklonis in Dimorphotheca; Picris echioides in Helminthotheca; Prionopsis in Grindelia; Raillardiopsis in Anisocarpus and Carlquistia; Schkuhria multiflora in Bahia; Trimorpha in Erigeron; Venidium in Arctotis; Whitneya in Arnica. Taxa of Arida in TJM2 treated here in Leucosyris. —Scientific Editors: David J. Keil, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Unabridged note: Largest family of vascular plants in California and of eudicots globally.

Key to Asteraceae

STEPHANOMERIA

L.D. Gottlieb

Annual to subshrub, glabrous or hairy; sap milky. Stem: 1–5+, ascending or erect, simple or branched, 1–20 dm. Leaf: alternate, basal rosette and cauline, generally ± thin, linear to oblanceolate, entire to pinnately lobed, generally withered at flower in annual and some perennial herb; distal cauline generally reduced and ± bract-like. Inflorescence: heads liguliflorous, 1 or in dense or panicle-like clusters from nodes along branches, ± sessile to peduncled; involucre cylindric; phyllaries generally in 2 series, outer < 1/4–1/2 × inner; appressed or reflexed; inner equal, glabrous or glandular-hairy; receptacle smooth or pitted, epaleate. Flower: 4–21; ligules lavender, pink, or white, readily withering. Fruit: 1.9–6.5 mm; ± cylindric, 5-angled, each face generally with long, narrow, central groove; pappus of 5–40, white to tan bristles, wholly plumose or plumose at least on distal 1/2, free throughout or widened at bases and then basally fused, generally in groups of 2–4, deciduous entirely or only widened bristle bases persistent after distal portion breaks off.
16 species: western North America. (Greek: wreath division, alluding to plumose pappus bristles) [Gottlieb 2006 FNANM 19:350–359] Annual species complexly interrelated, distinguished by different combinations or expressions of same traits; mature fruits and pappus needed for identification. Stephanomeria blairii moved to Munzothamnus, Stephanomeria spinosa to Pleiacanthus.
Unabridged references: [Gottlieb 1972 Madroño 21:463–481]

Key to Stephanomeria

S. elata Nutt.
NATIVE
Annual 5–15 dm, glabrous or glandular-hairy. Stem: 1, branches ascending or spreading. Leaf: basal withered at flower; cauline reduced, bract-like. Inflorescence: heads 1 or in clusters from nodes along branches; peduncle 3–7 mm; involucre 5–7 mm; outer phyllaries generally reflexed (appressed). Flower: 9–15; ligule pink. Fruit: 2.8–4.5 mm; faces smooth to tubercled, grooved; pappus bristles white or tan, wholly plumose, in some populations free, deciduous, in others, basally fused in groups, wholly or only bristle base persistent.
2n=32. Chaparral openings, grassy meadows, roadside embankments; 100–1400 m. Northwestern California, Cascade Range Foothills, Sierra Nevada, Central Western California, w South Coast, Western Transverse Ranges; southwestern Oregon. Derived from hybridization between Stephanomeria exigua and Stephanomeria virgata. Jul–Nov [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Jul 31 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Stephanomeria, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=5147, accessed on Jul 31 2014

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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.