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CAMPANULACEAE BELLFLOWER FAMILY

Nancy R. Morin, except as noted

Annual to perennial herb [tree]. Leaf: generally cauline, generally simple, generally alternate, petioled or not; stipules 0. Inflorescence: cyme, panicle, raceme, spike, or flowers 1; terminal or in axils of leaf-like or reduced bracts. Flower: bisexual, cleistogamous or open, radial or bilateral, inverted (pedicel twisted 180°) or not; hypanthium generally present, ± fused to ovary; sepals generally 5; corolla radial to 2-lipped, petals generally fused, tube deeply divided on 1 side or not, lobes generally 5; stamens 5, free or ± fused (anthers, filaments fused into tube or filaments fused above middle); ovary inferior or 1/2 inferior (superior in fruit), chambers 1–3, placentas axile or parietal, ovules many, style generally 1, 2–5-branched. Fruit: generally capsule, open on sides or top by pores or short valves. Seed: many.
± 90 genera, ± 2500 species: worldwide. [Haberle et al. 2008 J Molec Evol 66:350–361] Some cultivated for ornamental (Campanula, Jasione, Lobelia). Subfamilies sometimes treated as families. Positions of flower parts given after flowering inversion, if any. Parishella moved to Nemacladus. —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Lammers 2007 World Checklist and Bibliography of Campanulaceae. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.]

Key to Campanulaceae

GITHOPSIS BLUECUP
Annual, glabrous to hairy; roots fibrous. Stem: erect, 2–40 cm, 4-angled, branched or not. Leaf: cauline, widely linear to ovate, serrate, sessile. Inflorescence: flowers terminal, bracts 2–4, linear, lanceolate, oblanceolate, to ovate. Flower: not inverted, pedicelled or not; sepals 0.5–3 × ovary, linear to narrowly triangular; corolla cylindric, funnel-, or bell-shaped, throat white, lobes linear to widely ovate, white to deep purple; ovary inferior, obconic or cylindric, narrowed near middle or not. Fruit: open at top irregularly by tears where style falls off, within persistent sepals. Seed: ± 1 mm, angular-fusiform.
4 species: western North America. (Greek: Githago -like) [Morin 1983 Syst Bot 8:436–468] Width in length-to-width ratios of corollas (or ovaries) measured at tube (or ovary) tops.

Key to Githopsis

G. diffusa A. Gray
NATIVE
Plant glabrous to hairy. Stem: clambering to erect, 2–30 cm. Leaf: 3–15 mm. Inflorescence: bracts 2.5–10 mm, linear or oblanceolate, < 5 mm apart. Flower: pedicel 0; sepals 1.5–2 × ovary; corolla 1.5–7.5 mm, 2.5–4.5 × longer than wide, narrowly funnel-shaped, lobes <= ovary, white to deep blue; filament base narrow, glabrous; ovary 4–9 mm, cylindric to obconic, 2–6.5 × longer than wide, narrowed near middle, base swollen, ribs 10, those at sinuses narrower, style 2–4.5 mm, distal 35–75% papillate.
n=10,20. [Online Interchange]

G. diffusa subsp. candida (Ewan) Morin
NATIVE
Stem: erect, 4–20 cm; upper 0.4–1 mm wide. Leaf: 6–13 mm. Inflorescence: bracts 4–10 mm. Flower: corolla 5–7.5 mm, widely funnel-shaped, lobes 2–5 mm, white or pale pink; ovary 5 × longer than wide.
n=10. Chaparral, burned areas, generally on serpentine or similar soils; 480–1700 m. Peninsular Ranges; Baja California. May–Jun [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Dec 20 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Githopsis, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=50829, accessed on Dec 20 2014

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Githopsis diffusa subsp. candida Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.