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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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Annual to tree, vine.
Leaf: generally opposite ( whorled), entire; stipules generally fused to stem, adjacent pairs occasionally fused, or occasionally leaf-like and appearing like whorled leaves.
Inflorescence: cyme, panicle, spike, cluster, or flower 1, generally terminal and ± axillary.
Flower: generally bisexual; calyx ± 4(5)-lobed, occasionally 0 (Galium, Crucianella) or 6 (Sherardia); corolla generally radial, 4(5)-lobed; stamens epipetalous, alternate corolla lobes, generally included; ovary generally inferior, chambers generally 2 or 4, style 1(2).
Fruit: drupe, berry, or 2 or 4 nutlets [ capsule].
± 500 genera, 6000 species: worldwide, especially tropics; many cultivated, including Coffea, coffee; Cinchona, quinine; many ornamental. [Robbrecht & Manen 2006 Syst & Geogr Plant 76:85–146] Diodia teres Walter doubtfully in CA. —Scientific Editors: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Unabridged references: [Dempster 1979 Fl CA 4(2):1–47]
Key to Rubiaceae
Annual, perennial herb, occasionally ± shrubby, glabrous to hairy, generally scabrous; dioecious, bisexual, or flowers unisexual and bisexual.Key to Galium
Stem: 4-angled, occasionally ridged lengthwise.
Leaf: generally in whorls of >= 4, including leaf-like stipules.
Inflorescence: panicles, axillary clusters ( cymes), or occasionally 1 in axils.
Flower: bisexual, or unisexual with sterile stamens or pistils; calyx 0; corolla generally rotate, occasionally ± bell-shaped, generally ± green, yellow to white, occasionally pink or red, lobes generally 4; ovary 2-lobed, styles 2, bases ± fused.
Fruit: 2 nutlets or berry.
± 650 species: worldwide, especially temperate. (Greek: milk, from use of some species for curdling) [Dempster 1978 Univ Calif Publ Bot 73:1–33; Soza & Olmstead 2010 Amer J Bot 97:1630–1646] Ovary and fruit generally ± equally hairy on a plant; staminate plants generally identified by vestigial ovaries, pistillate plants generally by vestigial anthers. Galium saxatile L., Galium schultesii Vest, and Galium verum L. are lawn weeds in CA.
Unabridged references: [Dempster 1973 Univ Calif Publ Bot 64:1–36; Dempster & Ehrendorfer 1965 Brittonia 17:289–334; Dempster & Stebbins 1968 Univ Calif Publ Bot 46:1–52; Dempster & Stebbins 1971 Madroño 21:71–95]
Perennial, erect, 5–32 cm, tufted, few-branched, puberulent, base woody; dioecious.
Leaf: in whorls of 4, <= 15 mm, lanceolate to narrowly elliptic.
Inflorescence: panicle, terminal, narrow, leafy, on erect to ascending branchlets.
Staminate inflorescence: axillary clusters.
Pistillate inflorescence: flowers generally 1 in axils.
Flower: corolla ± white, ± glabrous.
Fruit: nutlets; hairs long, straight, ± yellow. [Online Interchange]
Unabridged note: 9 subspp. total. Native to far w US.
Stem: 12–27 cm.
Leaf: 9–15 mm, narrowly elliptic, tapered to acute, generally flat tip, tip not sharp.
Flower: corolla generally ± cup-shaped.
2n=22. Steep slopes in open pine forest; 1000–2000 m. Klamath Ranges.
Previous taxon: Galium serpenticum
Next taxon: Galium serpenticum subsp. warnerense
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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|Bioregions in which taxon occurs||Red area (if present) is the part of the bioregion lying between the upper and lower elevation limits of the taxon;|
markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may have georeferencing or identification issues.
Chart based on elevation range in Manual and elevations and coordinates of CCH records.
Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
Note: About half of the CCH records include both elevation and coordinates.
|Map made in collaboration with Scott Loarie. Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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