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Key to families | Table of families and genera

Previous taxon Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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Robert E. Preston & Lauramay T. Dempster, except as noted

Annual to tree, vine. Leaf: generally opposite (whorled), entire; stipules generally fused to stem, adjacent pairs occasionally fused, or occasionally leaf-like and appearing like whorled leaves. Inflorescence: cyme, panicle, spike, cluster, or flower 1, generally terminal and ± axillary. Flower: generally bisexual; calyx ± 4(5)-lobed, occasionally 0 (Galium, Crucianella) or 6 (Sherardia); corolla generally radial, 4(5)-lobed; stamens epipetalous, alternate corolla lobes, generally included; ovary generally inferior, chambers generally 2 or 4, style 1(2). Fruit: drupe, berry, or 2 or 4 nutlets [capsule].
± 500 genera, 6000 species: worldwide, especially tropics; many cultivated, including Coffea, coffee; Cinchona, quinine; many ornamental. [Robbrecht & Manen 2006 Syst & Geogr Plant 76:85–146] Diodia teres Walter doubtfully in California. —Scientific Editors: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Unabridged references: [Dempster 1979 Fl California 4(2):1–47]

Key to Rubiaceae


Valerie Soza

Annual, perennial herb, occasionally ± shrubby, glabrous to hairy, generally scabrous; dioecious, bisexual, or flowers unisexual and bisexual. Stem: 4-angled, occasionally ridged lengthwise. Leaf: generally in whorls of >= 4, including leaf-like stipules. Inflorescence: panicles, axillary clusters (cymes), or occasionally 1 in axils. Flower: bisexual, or unisexual with sterile stamens or pistils; calyx 0; corolla generally rotate, occasionally ± bell-shaped, generally ± green, yellow to white, occasionally pink or red, lobes generally 4; ovary 2-lobed, styles 2, bases ± fused. Fruit: 2 nutlets or berry.
± 650 species: worldwide, especially temperate. (Greek: milk, from use of some species for curdling) [Dempster 1978 Univ Calif Publ Bot 73:1–33; Soza & Olmstead 2010 Amer J Bot 97:1630–1646] Ovary and fruit generally ± equally hairy on a plant; staminate plants generally identified by vestigial ovaries, pistillate plants generally by vestigial anthers. Galium saxatile L., Galium schultesii Vest, and Galium verum L. are lawn weeds in California.
Unabridged references: [Dempster 1973 Univ Calif Publ Bot 64:1–36; Dempster & Ehrendorfer 1965 Brittonia 17:289–334; Dempster & Stebbins 1968 Univ Calif Publ Bot 46:1–52; Dempster & Stebbins 1971 Madroño 21:71–95]

Key to Galium

G. californicum Hook. & Arn. CALIFORNIA BEDSTRAW
Perennial herb, base occasionally ± woody, low, cushion-like to ± climbing, generally hairy; dioecious. Stem: 5–90 cm. Leaf: in whorls of 4, 2–25 mm, ovate to elliptic; tip acute to obtuse; ± petioled. Staminate inflorescence: clusters, flowers few. Pistillate inflorescence: flowers generally 1 in axils. Flower: corolla rotate, ± yellow. Fruit: berry, ± hairy, occasionally glabrous. [Online Interchange]

G. californicum subsp. sierrae Dempster & Stebbins EL DORADO BEDSTRAW
Plant weak, slender, cushion-like to weakly tufted, not woody, hairs many, straight, soft. Stem: 7–14 cm. Leaf: <= 20 mm, length 5–8 × width, tip acute, with a terminal hair. Flower: corolla hairy externally. Fruit: minute-hairy.
Open pine, oak forests, chaparral; 100–500 m. n Sierra Nevada Foothills (El Dorado Co.). Mar–Jul [Online Interchange] {CNPS list}

Previous taxon: Galium californicum subsp. primum
Next taxon: Galium catalinense


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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Mar 31 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Galium, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Mar 31 2015

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Galium californicum subsp. sierrae Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.