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ONAGRACEAE EVENING-PRIMROSE FAMILY

Warren L. Wagner & Peter C. Hoch, family description, key to genera; treatment of genera by Warren L. Wagner, except as noted

Annual to perennial herb (to tree). Leaf: cauline or basal, alternate, opposite, or whorled, generally simple and toothed (to pinnately compound); stipules 0 or generally deciduous. Inflorescence: spike, raceme, panicle, or flowers 1 in axils; bracted. Flower: generally bisexual, generally radial, often opening at either dawn or dusk; hypanthium generally prolonged beyond ovary (measured from ovary tip to sepal base); sepals 4(2–7); petals 4(2–7, rarely 0), often fading darker; stamens 2 × or = sepals in number, anthers 2-chambered, opening lengthwise, pollen interconnected by threads; ovary inferior, chambers generally as many as sepals (sometimes becoming 1), placentas axile or parietal, ovules 1–many per chamber, style 1, stigma 4-lobed (or lobes as many as sepals), club-shaped, spheric, or hemispheric. Fruit: capsule, loculicidal (sometimes berry or indehiscent and nut-like). Seed: sometimes winged or hair-tufted.
22 genera, ± 657 species: worldwide, especially western North America; many cultivated (Clarkia, Epilobium, Fuchsia, Oenothera). [Wagner et al. 2007 Syst Bot Monogr 83:1–240] Gaura moved to Oenothera. Fuchsia magellanica Lam. naturalized in northern California. —Scientific Editors: Robert Patterson, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Unabridged references: [Munz 1965 North America Fl II 5:1–278]

Key to Onagraceae

EPILOBIUM WILLOWHERB

Peter C. Hoch

Annual to subshrub. Leaf: generally opposite proximally (or clustered in axils), generally ± fine-toothed; veins generally obscure. Inflorescence: generally raceme, bracted. Flower: radial or rarely ± bilateral; sepals 4, erect; petals 4, notched; stamens 8, anthers attached at middle, pollen grains generally shed in 4s, cream-yellow; ovary chambers 4, stigma generally club-like, occasionally 4-lobed. Fruit: straight, cylindric to club-like. Seed: generally in 1 row per chamber, generally with white, deciduous hair-tuft.
165 species: worldwide except tropics. (Greek: upon pod, from inferior ovary) [Raven 1976 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 63:326–340; Wagner et al. 2007 Syst Bot Monogr 83:81–95] Incl Boisduvalia, Zauschneria. Most taxa polyploid; many with anthers ± = stigma self-pollinated; many hybrids. Taxa with alternate leaves moved to Chamerion.

Key to Epilobium

E. canum (Greene) P.H. Raven CALIFORNIA FUCHSIA, ZAUSCHNERIA
NATIVE
Perennial herb (clumped with basal scaly shoots) to subshrub, strigose to ± densely spreading-hairy and generally glandular. Leaf: ± sessile, 8–70 mm, linear to widely ovate, green to ± gray, ± entire to strongly toothed. Flower: red-orange; hypanthium 17–34 mm; sepals 4–10 mm; petals 7–15 mm; stamens << pistil; stigma 4-lobed. Fruit: 15–30 mm, ± beaked, hairy; pedicel 0–3 mm. Seed: 1.2–2.3 mm, low-papillate. Hummingbird-pollinated. Subspecies intergrade, especially in southern California. [Online Interchange]

E. canum subsp. latifolium (Hook.) P.H. Raven
NATIVE
Perennial herb 1–5 dm, generally spreading-hairy and glandular. Leaf: opposite, lanceolate to ovate, ± entire to generally toothed, generally green.
2n=60. Dry slopes, ridges; 50–3300 m. Klamath Ranges, High North Coast Ranges, Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada, Transverse Ranges, Peninsular Ranges, Desert Mountains; to southwestern Oregon, western New Mexico, northwestern Mexico. Jun–Dec [Online Interchange]
Unabridged synonyms: [Zauschneria californica subsp. latifolia (Hook.) D.D. Keck]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Jul 29 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Epilobium, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=50304, accessed on Jul 29 2014

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click for enlargement Epilobium canum subsp. latifolium
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Charles Webber 1998 California Academy of Sciences

Bioregions in which Epilobium canum subsp. latifolium occurs Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.