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OROBANCHACEAE BROOMRAPE FAMILY

Margriet Wetherwax, except as noted

Annual, perennial herb, shrub; often glandular; root-parasites, roots modified into absorptive structures. Stem: generally round in ×-section. Leaf: generally simple, generally alternate, reduced to ± fleshy scales in non-green plants lacking chlorophyll; stipules generally 0. Inflorescence: spike to panicle, generally bracted, or flowers 1–2 in axils. Flower: bisexual; calyx lobes 0–5; corolla generally strongly bilateral, generally 2-lipped (upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower lip generally 3-lobed), abaxial lobes outside other lobes in bud; stamens epipetalous, 4 in 2 pairs (sometimes 1 pair sterile), additional staminode 0(1), anther sacs unequal; ovary superior, chambers 1–2, placentas 2–4, parietal, style 1, stigma lobes 0 or 2. Fruit: capsule, generally ± ovoid, loculicidal, valves 2–4. Seed: many, small, angled; surface smooth or netted.
99 genera, 2060 species: worldwide, especially northern temperate and Africa. [Bennett & Matthews 2006 Amer J Bot 93:1039–1051] High yield losses in many crops caused by Orobanche species in Africa, Mediterranean, Middle East, and eastern Europe. —Scientific Editors: Robert Patterson, Bruce G. Baldwin.

Key to Orobanchaceae

CORDYLANTHUS BIRD'S-BEAK

Margriet Wetherwax & David C. Tank

Annual, gray- or yellow-green, often becoming red-purple, generally much-branched; roots ± yellow. Leaf: sessile, entire, thread-like to lanceolate or palmately 3–7-lobed, segments narrow. Inflorescence: short dense spike (subtended by bracts), < 2(5) cm or flowers 1 (each subtended by outer bract); outer bracts ± leaf-like; inner bract calyx-like (formerly confused with calyx), 0–7-lobed. Flower: calyx sheath-like, generally divided to base abaxially, partially surrounding corolla tube laterally, tip entire or shallowly notched; corolla club-shaped, tubular proximally, expanded laterally; upper corolla lip folded lengthwise, tip rounded, closed, opening directed downwards forming a hood enclosing anthers, style; lower corolla lip <= upper lip, obscurely 3-lobed, middle lobe tightly rolled under, tip distinctly folded inside-out; fertile stamens (2)4, anther sacs generally 2 per stamen, densely hairy at both ends and ciliate along line of dehiscence, unequal in size and placement; style bent near tip, stigma barely exserted. Seed: attached at side; seed coat tight-fitting, netted or irregularly striate.
13 species: western North America. (Greek: club-shaped flower) [Tank et al. 2009 Syst Bot 34:182–197] Close to Orthocarpus, distinguished by inflorescence, calyx, stamens; generally flowers Jul–Sep. Other taxa in TJM (1993) moved to Chloropyron, Dicranostegia.
Unabridged references: [Chuang & Heckard 1986 Syst Bot Monogr 10:1–105; Tank & Olmstead 2008 Amer J Bot 95:608–625]

Key to Cordylanthus

C. rigidus (Benth.) Jeps.
NATIVE
Plant 30–150 cm, yellow-green or tinged red, generally ± bristly, generally not glandular. Leaf: 10–40 mm, ± linear, often inrolled, lobes 0–3. Inflorescence: flowers solitary, 5–15 in ± compact, head-like clusters; outer bract generally 1 per flower, 5–20 mm, generally 3-lobed; inner bract 14–20 mm. Flower: calyx 10–20 mm, tube 1–2 mm; corolla 12–20 mm, ± yellow, lower side marked maroon in U-shape, pouch 3–10 mm wide, white. Seed: 1.5–2 mm, ± ovoid, wavy-striate, dark brown.
2n=28. Highly variable, intergrading. Many geographic races, variably distinct; 5 most discrete (1 in Baja California) considered subspecies. [Online Interchange]

C. rigidus (Benth.) Jeps. subsp. brevibracteatus (A. Gray) Munz SHORT-BRACTED BIRD'S-BEAK
NATIVE
Inflorescence: 2–12-flowered, 10–20 mm wide; outer bract generally 5–10 mm (< flower), lobed in distal 1/2, ± long-bristly, middle lobe oblong, tip slightly wider, unthickened, ± green. Flower: corolla 8–17 mm.
Granitic openings in Jeffrey-pine and pinyon/juniper forest, sagebrush scrub; 850–2560 m. s High Sierra Nevada. Jul–Sep [Online Interchange] {CNPS list}

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Nov 23 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Cordylanthus, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=49979, accessed on Nov 23 2014

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Cordylanthus rigidus subsp. brevibracteatus Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.