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COMANDRACEAE BASTARD TOADFLAX FAMILY

Danica T. Harbaugh

Perennial herb, subshrub, green root-parasite; stems, leaves glabrous. Leaf: entire, simple [reduced to scales], alternate; stipules 0. Inflorescence: generally small, simple or compound cymes, axillary or terminal. Flower: bisexual [unisexual]; calyx 0; petals 4–6; stamens opposite petals, on fleshy disk; ovary inferior, chamber 1, ovules 2–4, suspended from top of free-central placenta, style 1, stigma lobes 2–4. Fruit: drupe. Seed: 1, spheric [ovoid].
2 genera, 2 species: North America, Europe, Mediterranean. [Nickrent et al. 2010 Taxon 59:538–558] Segregated, along with other families, from otherwise paraphyletic Santalaceae (Nickrent et al.). —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Angiosperm Phylogeny Group 1998 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 85:531–553]

COMANDRA BASTARD TOADFLAX
Rhizome extensive. Stem: green, blue-green, or ± gray, striate. Leaf: ± sessile. Flower: subtended by bractlet; calyx tube bell- or urn-shaped, lobes 5(6); stamen base hair-tufted. Fruit: crowned by persistent calyx.
4 species: 3 America, 1 Europe. (Greek: hair, man, for hairy stamen bases)
Unabridged references: [Piehl 1965 Mem Torrey Bot Club 22(1):1–97]

C. umbellata (L.) Nutt. subsp. californica (Rydb.) Piehl
NATIVE
Stem: many from rhizome, 10–40 cm, branched, glaucous. Leaf: 15–55 mm, lanceolate, acute to sharp-pointed, abaxially paler or not. Flower: 2–3.5 mm; calyx lobes lanceolate to narrow-ovate, ± white; anthers ± 0.5 mm. Fruit: 5–7.5 mm, oblong-ovoid.
Generally dry, ± rocky areas; 300–3000 m. Klamath Ranges, Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada, East of Sierra Nevada, n Mojave Desert; to British Columbia, southwestern Nevada, northwestern Arizona. Apr–Aug [Online Interchange]
Unabridged note: Expanded author citation: Comandra umbellata (L.) Nutt. subsp. californica (Eastw. ex Rydb.) Piehl.

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Oct 23 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Comandra, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=49946, accessed on Oct 23 2014

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Comandra umbellata subsp. californica Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.