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OROBANCHACEAE BROOMRAPE FAMILY

Margriet Wetherwax, except as noted

Annual, perennial herb, shrub; often glandular; root-parasites, roots modified into absorptive structures. Stem: generally round in ×-section. Leaf: generally simple, generally alternate, reduced to ± fleshy scales in non-green plants lacking chlorophyll; stipules generally 0. Inflorescence: spike to panicle, generally bracted, or flowers 1–2 in axils. Flower: bisexual; calyx lobes 0–5; corolla generally strongly bilateral, generally 2-lipped (upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower lip generally 3-lobed), abaxial lobes outside other lobes in bud; stamens epipetalous, 4 in 2 pairs (sometimes 1 pair sterile), additional staminode 0(1), anther sacs unequal; ovary superior, chambers 1–2, placentas 2–4, parietal, style 1, stigma lobes 0 or 2. Fruit: capsule, generally ± ovoid, loculicidal, valves 2–4. Seed: many, small, angled; surface smooth or netted.
99 genera, 2060 species: worldwide, especially northern temperate and Africa. [Bennett & Matthews 2006 Amer J Bot 93:1039–1051] High yield losses in many crops caused by Orobanche species in Africa, Mediterranean, Middle East, and eastern Europe. —Scientific Editors: Robert Patterson, Bruce G. Baldwin.

Key to Orobanchaceae

CASTILLEJA PAINTBRUSH, OWL'S-CLOVER

Margriet Wetherwax, T.I. Chuang & Lawrence R. Heckard

Annual to subshrub, green. Leaf: sessile, entire to dissected. Inflorescence: spike-like; bracts becoming shorter, wider, more lobed than leaves, mature tips generally cream to red or green. Flower: calyx unequally 4-lobed, colored like bract tips; corolla upper 2 lip lobes fused, beak-like, tip open, lower lip reduced, 3-toothed to -pouched; stamens 4, anther sacs 2, unequal; stigma entire to 2-lobed, generally exserted. Fruit: ± asymmetric. Seed: generally ± brown, attached at base; coat netted, net-like walls ladder-like or not.
± 200 species: especially western North America. (Domingo Castillejo, Spanish botanist, 1744–1793) [Tank & Olmstead 2008 Amer J Bot 95:608–625] Hybridization and polyploidy common. Biologically consistent taxa difficult to define. Castilleja chrymactis Pennell not in California, sole (1947) record a misidentified, incomplete specimen.
Unabridged references: [Chuang & Heckard 1991 Syst Bot 16:644–666]

Key to Castilleja

C. exserta (A. Heller) T.I. Chuang & Heckard PURPLE OWL'S-CLOVER
NATIVE
Annual 10–45 cm, glandular-puberulent, stiff-hairy. Leaf: 10–50 mm; lobes 5–9, ± thread-like. Inflorescence: 2–20 cm, 2–4 cm wide; bracts 10–25 mm, white to purple-red, lobes 5–9 (lowest pair often again 2–4-lobed), ± linear, tips wider. Flower: calyx 10–22 mm, divided 1/2 abaxially, 2/3 adaxially, 1/3 on sides, colored like bracts; corolla 12–30 mm, beak 6–7 mm, densely shaggy-hairy, tip hooked, lower lip 4–6 mm, pouches 3–8 mm wide, 3–4 mm deep; filaments puberulent; stigma ± included. Fruit: 10–15 mm. Seed: 1–2 mm; coat deeply netted, loose-fitting. Highly variable; hybridizes with Castilleja attenuata, Castilleja densiflora, Castilleja lineariloba. [Online Interchange]
Unabridged synonyms: [Orthocarpus purpurascens Benth.]

C. exserta subsp. latifolia (S. Watson) T.I. Chuang & Heckard
NATIVE
Stem: branches many, decumbent. Inflorescence: banded alternately light and dark; distal bracts generally 5–7 mm wide, lobes < 2 mm, tipped pale lavender. Flower: corolla colored like bracts.
2n=24. Coastal grassland, dunes; < 500 m. North Coast, n&c Central Coast. Mar–May [Online Interchange]
Unabridged synonyms: [Orthocarpus purpurascens var. latifolius S. Watson]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Nov 24 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Castilleja, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=49745, accessed on Nov 24 2014

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click for enlargement Castilleja exserta subsp. latifolia
See CalPhotos for additional images
2008 Doreen L. Smith

Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Castilleja exserta subsp. latifolia Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.