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Key to families | Table of families and genera

Previous taxon Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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Robert E. Preston, except as noted

Annual, perennial herb, subshrub, generally twining or trailing. Leaf: 0 or alternate. Inflorescence: cyme or flowers 1 in axils; bracts subtending flowers 0 or 2. Flower: bisexual, radial; sepals (4)5, ± free, overlapping, persistent, often unequal; corolla generally showy, generally bell-shaped, ± shallowly 5-lobed, generally pleated and twisted in bud; stamens 5, epipetalous; pistil 1, ovary superior, chambers generally 2, each generally 2-ovuled, styles 1–2. Fruit: generally capsule. Seed: 1–4(6).
55–60 genera, 1600–1700 species: warm temperate to tropics; some cultivated for food or as ornamental (Ipomoea). [Stefanovic et al. 2003 Syst Bot 28:791–806] Monophyletic only if Cuscutaceae included, as treated here. Ipomoea cairica (L.) Sweet, Ipomoea hederacea Jacq. [Ipomoea nil L., misappl.], Ipomoea indica (Burm.) Merr. (including Ipomoea mutabilis Ker Gawl.), Ipomoea purpurea (L.) Roth, Ipomoea triloba L., all included in TJM (1993), not naturalized. —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Angiosperm Phylogeny Group 1998 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 85:531–553; Stefanovic et al. 2002 Amer J Bot 89:1510–1522]

Key to Convolvulaceae


R.K. Brummitt

Perennial herb, subshrub from caudex or rhizome, glabrous to tomentose. Stem: short to high-climbing, generally twisting, twining. Leaf: generally > 1 cm, linear to reniform or sagittate to hastate (deeply divided). Inflorescence: peduncle generally 1-flowered; bracts generally ± opposite, lobed or not, > 1 mm below calyx, not hiding it, small, to < 1 mm below calyx, hiding it or ± so, large. Flower: generally showy; corolla glabrous, white or yellow to pink or purple; ovary chamber 1, style 1, stigma lobes 2, oblong, tips obtuse. Fruit: ± spheric, ± inflated. Seed: generally ± 4.
± 25 species: temperate, worldwide. (Greek: hiding calyx, by bracts of some) [Brummitt 2002 Madroño 49:130–131] Intermediates common, often difficult to identify. Molecular evidence indicates close relationship with Convolvulus (Carine et al. 2004 Amer J Bot 91:1070–1085). Bracts qualify as bractlets by some definitions. Leaf blade length measured along midrib.
Unabridged references: [Brummitt 1980 Kew Bull 35(2):327–328]

Key to Calystegia

C. occidentalis (A. Gray) Brummitt
Perennial herb from woody caudex; puberulent to finely tomentose. Stem: decumbent to strongly climbing. Leaf: blade generally 1.5–4 cm; lobes generally ± distinct, rounded to 2-tipped; sinus rounded to ± square or tapered. Inflorescence: peduncle 1–4-flowered, < to ± > subtending leaf; bracts generally ± not hiding calyx, 5–12 mm, linear to ± round, ± sessile or stalked, entire or toothed or lobed like leaves. Flower: sepals 9–15 mm; corolla 20–48 mm, white to creamy yellow. [Online Interchange]

C. occidentalis subsp. occidentalis
Stem: decumbent to strongly climbing, generally > 1 m. Leaf: lobes generally indistinct, generally 2-tipped. Inflorescence: peduncle (1)2–4-flowered; bracts 1–7 mm below calyx, 4–18 mm, 1–5 mm wide, generally ± linear-oblong, entire.
Dry slopes, chaparral, pine woodland; < 1200 m. Klamath Ranges, North Coast Ranges, High Cascade Range, High Sierra Nevada, San Francisco Bay Area, Modoc Plateau; Oregon. May–Jul [Online Interchange]
Unabridged note: Intergrades with Calystegia atriplicifolia subsp. buttensis, Calystegia collina subsp. tridactylosa, Calystegia malacophylla, Calystegia occidentalis subsp. fulcrata, Calystegia peirsonii, Calystegia purpurata subsp. purpurata, Calystegia subacaulis. Evaluation under way of Calystegia occidentalis var. tomentella (Greene) Brummitt [Convolvulus tomentellus Greene] (leaves ± equilateral, bracts ± 1 mm below calyx; Cascade Range, southern Sierra Nevada (Greenhorn Mountains), Tehachapi Mountain Area).

Previous taxon: Calystegia occidentalis subsp. fulcrata
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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Mar 26 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Calystegia, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Mar 26 2015

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Calystegia occidentalis subsp. occidentalis Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.