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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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Annual to woody per; roots generally fibrous.
Stem: generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid.
Leaf: alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear, parallel-veined; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base.
Inflorescence: various (of generally many spikelets).
Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets ( lemma, palea, flower) 1–many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally ± transparent, ± enclosed by lemma.
Flower: generally bisexual, minute; perianth vestigial; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose.
Fruit: grain (rarely achene-like).
650–900 genera; ± 10550 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials). [Barkworth et al. 2003 FNANM:25; Barkworth et al. 2007 FNANM:24] Generally wind-pollinated. Achnatherum, Ampelodesmos, Hesperostipa, Nassella, Piptatherum, Piptochaetium, Ptilagrostis moved to Stipa; Elytrigia, Leymus, Pascopyrum, Pseudoroegneria, Taeniatherum to Elymus; Hierochloe to Anthoxanthum; Lolium, Vulpia to Festuca; Lycurus to Muhlenbergia; Monanthochloe to Distichlis; Pleuraphis to Hilaria; Rhynchelytrum to Melinis. The following taxa (in genera not included here), recorded in CA from historical collections or reported in literature, are extirpated, lacking vouchers, or not considered naturalized: Acrachne racemosa (Roth) Ohwi, Allolepis texana (Vasey) Soderstr. & H.F. Decker, Amphibromus nervosus (Hook. f.) Baill., Axonopus affinis Chase, Axonopus fissifolius (Raddi) Kuhlm., Coix lacryma-jobi L., Cutandia memphitica (Spreng.) K. Richt., Dinebra retroflexa (Vahl) Panz., Eremochloa ciliaris (L.) Merr., Eustachys distichophylla (Lag.) Nees, Gaudinia fragilis (L.) P. Beauv., Miscanthus sinensis Andersson, Neyraudia arundinacea (L.) Henrard, Phyllostachys aurea Rivière & C. Rivière, Phyllostachys bambusoides Siebold & Zuccarini, Rottboellia cochinchinensis (Lour.) Clayton, Schedonnardus paniculatus (Nutt.) Branner & Coville, Schizachyrium cirratum (Hack.) Wooton & Standl., Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash, Themeda quadrivalvis (L.) Kuntze, Thysanolaena latifolia (Hornem.) Honda, Tribolium obliterum (Hemsl.) Renvoize, Zea mays L., Zizania palustris L. var. interior (Fassett) Dore, Zoysia japonica Steud. Paspalum pubiflorum E. Fourn., Paspalum quadrifarium Lam., are now reported for s CA (J Bot Res Inst Texas 4:761–770). See Glossary p. 30 for illustrations of general family characteristics. —Scientific Editors: James P. Smith, Jr., J. Travis Columbus, Dieter H. Wilken.
Unabridged references: [Hitchcock 1951 Manual grasses US, USDA Misc Publ 200; Clayton & Renvoise 1986 Kew Bull Add Series 13]
Key to Poaceae
Perennial, generally from rhizomes.Key to Calamagrostis
Stem: 1–15 dm, generally not branched, ± smooth; nodes (1)2–8.
Leaf: generally basal and cauline; sheath smooth or scabrous; ligule membranous; blade flat to inrolled.
Inflorescence: panicle-like, open to dense; branches ± drooping to appressed; spikelets ascending to appressed.
Spikelet: glumes subequal, generally lanceolate, acute to acuminate, lower generally 1-veined, upper 3-veined; floret 1, breaking above glumes; axis prolonged beyond floret, hairy; callus hairy; lemma < glumes, awned from below middle to near base, tip generally 4-toothed, veins 3–5, awn straight to twisted, bent; palea ± = lemma, thin.
± 265 species (including Deyeuxia): cool temperate (especially moist montane); some forage value. (Greek: reed grass) [Marr et al. 2007 FNANM 24:706–732] Hybridization, polyploidy (diploids unknown), and asexual seed set contribute to taxonomic difficulty.
Unabridged references: [Greene 1980 Ph.D. Dissertation Harvard Univ]
Stem: 2–12 dm.
Leaf: sheath smooth; ligule 1–5.5 mm; blade 2–5 mm wide, generally inrolled, lower surface generally smooth, upper surface smooth to scabrous.
Inflorescence: 5–20 cm, dense, narrow; branches < 1.5–9.5 cm, ascending to appressed.
Spikelet: glumes 2–6 mm, smooth to scabrous; axis 0.5–1.5 mm, hairs 1.5–3 mm; callus hairs 1–4.5 mm; lemma 2–5 mm, finely scabrous, awned at or below middle; awn ± = glume tip, generally straight. Subspp. intergrade. [Online Interchange]
Stem: 4–12 dm.
Leaf: ligule 2–5.5 mm; blade flat, strongly scabrous, upper surface generally glaucous.
Inflorescence: 6–20 cm; longest branches 1.5–9.5 cm.
Spikelet: glumes 3–6 mm, generally thick, margin opaque; axis 1–1.5 mm; callus hairs 2–4.5 mm; lemma 2.5–5 mm; awn occasionally twisted, bent, stiff; anthers generally sterile.
Slopes, meadows, coastal marshes; < 3400 m. Northwestern California, Cascade Range, n&c High Sierra Nevada, Central Coast;
Previous taxon: Calamagrostis stricta
Next taxon: Calamagrostis stricta subsp. stricta
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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|Bioregions in which taxon occurs||Red area (if present) is the part of the bioregion lying between the upper and lower elevation limits of the taxon;|
markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may have georeferencing or identification issues.
Chart based on elevation range in Manual and elevations and coordinates of CCH records.
Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
Note: About half of the CCH records include both elevation and coordinates.
|Map made in collaboration with Scott Loarie. Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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