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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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Annual, perennial herb, often rhizomed or stoloned, often of wet open places; roots fibrous; generally bisexual. Stem: generally 3-sided, generally solid. Leaf: generally 3-ranked; base sheathing, sheath generally closed, ligule generally 0; blade (0 or) linear, parallel-veined. Inflorescence: spikelets generally arranged in head-, spike-, raceme-, or panicle-like inflorescences; flower generally sessile in axil of flower bract, enclosed in a sac-like structure (perigynium) or generally not. Flower: small, generally wind-pollinated; perianth 0 or generally bristle like; stamens generally 3, anthers attached at base, 4 chambered; ovary superior, chamber 1, ovule 1, style 2–3-branched. Fruit: achene, 2–3 sided.
± 100 genera, 5000 species: especially temperate. [Ball et al. 2002 FNANM 23:1–608] Difficult; taxa differ in technical characters of inflorescence, fruit. In Carex and Kobresia, what appear to be pistillate flowers in fact are highly reduced inflorescences (whether or not the same applies to staminate flowers is still under debate). In some other works (e.g., FNANM) these are called spikelets, and they are treated as being arranged in spikes. Here and in TJM (1993), what appear to be pistillate flowers are called pistillate flowers in Carex (and they are treated as being arranged in spikelets), but spikelets in Kobresia (and they are treated as being arranged into spikes). Though internally inconsistent, the approach here is consistent with traditional usage, and reflects a preference for character states that may be determined in the field. —Scientific Editors: S. Galen Smith, Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Unabridged references: [Tucker 1987 J Arnold Arbor 68:361–445; Bruhl 1995 Australian Syst Bot 8:125–305]
Key to Cyperaceae
Perennial herb, erect, 50–200 cm, rhizomed, tubers durable. Stem: simple, sharply 3-angled, glabrous or angles scabrous, evident internal air cavities 0, not hollow. Leaf: basal and cauline, 3-ranked; sheath closed, long; ligule 0; blade generally present, long, thin, flat, V-shaped near base, keeled abaxially, margin, keel ± scabrous. Inflorescence: 1, terminal, panicle- (or head-) like, appearing with leaves; branches often scabrous; inflorescence bracts like leaf blades, main 1 > inflorescence; spikelets ± ovate, not ± flat, flower bracts spiraled, >= 25, each with 1 flower in axil, ± ovate, membranous to papery, puberulent (glabrous in age), brown to ± colorless, tip notched 0.5–1 mm, generally with curved awn often broken off. Flower: bisexual; perianth of 3–6 bristles, <= fruit, ± straight, stout, barbed; stamens 3, anthers >= 1.5 mm; style 1, thread-like, base not enlarged; stigmas 2–3. Fruit: generally obovate, smooth, brown, mucronate; wall cells small, solid or large, hollow (under dissecting microscope).Key to Bolboschoenus
Wetlands, often emergent.
7–15 species: temperate, subtropics. (Greek: bulb rush, for tubers) [Browning et al. 1995 Brittonia 47:433–445; Smith 2002 FNANM 23:37–44] Intermediates (putative hybrids) between species cause major problems in classification, identification.
Unabridged etymology: (Greek, bolbos, a bulb, and schoenos a rush, reed, in reference to the tubers)
Unabridged note: Fruit wall anatomy (± easily seen with a dissecting microscope in a hand-made section) including diagnostic characters that are correlated with fruit buoyancy and persistence of bristles on shed fruit. Putative interspecific hybridization causes major taxonomic confusion; putative hybrids generally occur with their parents, are intermediate between them in all characters, often bear apparently normal fruit that vary in shape within one spikelet, and form persistent clones.
Plant <= 150 cm. Stem: (1)3–8 mm diam. Leaf: sheath tip generally with acutely triangular, membranous, veinless area; widest blade 2–12 mm wide. Inflorescence: proximal inflorescence bract 2–12 mm wide; spikelets (1)2–40, <= 1/2 on branches, 7–40 mm, 4–10 mm wide; flower bracts 5–8 mm, membranous, transparent, awn 1–3 mm, base 0.25 mm wide. Flower: perianth bristles not attached to (or a few loosely attached), <= 1/2 fruit; anthers yellow; stigmas 2. Fruit: 2.3–4.1 mm, 1.9–2.8 mm wide, 2-sided, floating on water; mucro 0.1–0.4 mm; wall cells large, hollow.
Common in California. Brackish to saline coastal, inland marshes, shores; < 2900 m. California (except Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada); to Alaska, Nova Scotia, Texas, temperate South America; Eurasia, Africa, Hawaii. [Scirpus maritimus var. paludosus (A. Nelson) Kük.] Scirpus maritimus L. treated in TJM (1993) without infraspecific taxa, with Scirpus maritimus var. paludosus (A. Nelson) Kük. as a synonym. Summer [Online Interchange]
Unabridged note: In Pacific North America, Bolboschoenus maritimus was long erroneously called Bolboschoenus robustus. Bolboschoenus maritimus subsp. maritimus, characterized by stigmas generally 3, fruit generally 3-sided, is known only from Eurasia and northern Atlantic Coast of North America. Hybrids including Bolboschoenus maritimus subsp. paludosus × Bolboschoenus robustus (locally common. Central Coast, San Francisco Bay Area, South Coast [Atlantic coastal North America]), and Bolboschoenus glaucus × Bolboschoenus maritimus subsp. paludosus (forming hybrid swarms. Great Central Valley; Idaho).
Previous taxon: Bolboschoenus glaucus
Next taxon: Bolboschoenus robustus
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Mar 11 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2012. Bolboschoenus, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=49436, accessed on Mar 11 2014
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