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Mihai Costea, family description, key to genera, revised by Thomas J. Rosatti & Elizabeth H. Zacharias

Annual to shrub; hairs simple, stellate, or glandular; plants in several genera scaly, mealy, or powdery from collapsed glands; monoecious, dioecious, with bisexual flowers, or with both bisexual and unisexual flowers. Stem: occasionally fleshy. Leaf: blade simple, generally alternate, occasionally fleshy or reduced to scales, veins pinnate; stipules 0. Inflorescence: raceme, spike, catkin-like, spheric head, axillary clusters of flowers, or flowers 1; bracts 0–5, herbaceous, generally persistent or strongly modified in fruit, wings, tubercles or spines present or 0. Flower: bisexual or unisexual, small, generally green; calyx parts (1)3–5, or 0 in pistillate flowers, free or fused basally (or ± throughout), leaf-like in texture, membranous, or fleshy, deciduous or not, often strongly modified in fruit; corolla 0; stamens 1–5, opposite sepals, filaments free, equal; anthers 4-chambered; ovary superior (1/2-inferior), chamber 1; ovule 1; styles, stigmas 1–4 (or stigmas sessile). Fruit: achene or utricle, generally falling with persistent calyx or bracts. Seed: 1, small, lenticular to spheric; seed coat smooth to finely dotted, warty, net-like, or prickly, margin occasionally winged.
100 genera, 1500 species: worldwide, especially deserts, saline or alkaline soils; some cultivated for food (Beta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris, beet, Swiss chard; Spinacia oleracea L., spinach; Chenopodium quinoa Willd., quinoa); and some worldwide, naturalized ruderal or noxious agricultural weeds. Nitrophila treated in Amaranthaceae, Sarcobatus treated in Sarcobataceae. Key to genera revised by Elizabeth H. Zacharias to incorporate Extriplex and Stutzia, 2 genera segregated from Atriplex. —Scientific Editors: Bruce G. Baldwin, David J. Keil, Thomas J. Rosatti.

Key to Chenopodiaceae


Margriet Wetherwax & Leila M. Shultz

Annual to perennial herb, generally glabrous; roots fleshy, thickened. Stem: decumbent to erect, simple to branched. Leaf: alternate, ± entire, petioled. Inflorescence: spike, axillary, or terminal, panicle-like clusters, generally not bracted in distal 1/2. Flower: bisexual; sepals 3–5, < 3 mm, persistent, thickened in age; stamens 5; ovary 1/2-inferior, sunken into receptacle, stigmas 2(3). Fruit: achene, enclosed by swollen perianth and receptacle, ± circumscissile, hard, clustered. Seed: horizontal, ± spheric, dark brown.
± 5 species: Eurasia. (Greek: probably from Celtic name for red root) [Shultz 2003 FNANM 4:266]

B. vulgaris L. subsp. maritima (L.) Arcang. SEA BEET
Roots fibrous, occasionally swollen, not fleshy. Stem: simple, < 8 dm. Leaf: petiole ± = blade; blade < 10 cm, oblanceolate. Inflorescence: 1–3-flowered, bracts (0)2–8 mm. Flower: sepals 2–2.5 mm, incurved, abaxially keeled in age, margin scarious; stigmas 2. Fruit: 3–5 mm diam, 5–11 per cluster.
Moist sandy places, disturbed areas; < 300 m. Central Coast, San Francisco Bay Area, South Coast, Channel Islands, Western Transverse Ranges, Peninsular Ranges; New Jersey; southern Europe. Beta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris [Beta macrocarpa Guss.], cultivated beet, Swiss chard, occasional waif in drainage ditches, irrigation channels close to cultivated fields, Sonoran Desert; generally in eastern United States. Feb–Sep [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Apr 2 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Beta, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Apr 2 2015

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.