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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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Annual to woody perennial herb; roots generally fibrous. Stem: generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid. Leaf: alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear, parallel-veined; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base. Inflorescence: various (of generally many spikelets). Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1–many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally ± transparent, ± enclosed by lemma. Flower: generally bisexual, minute; perianth vestigial; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose. Fruit: grain, sometimes achene- or utricle-like.
650–900 genera; ± 10550 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials). [Barkworth et al. 2003 FNANM:25; Barkworth et al. 2007 FNANM:24] Generally wind-pollinated. Achnatherum, Ampelodesmos, Hesperostipa, Nassella, Piptatherum, Piptochaetium, Ptilagrostis moved to Stipa; Elytrigia, Leymus, Pascopyrum, Pseudoroegneria, Taeniatherum to Elymus; Hierochloe to Anthoxanthum; Lolium, Vulpia to Festuca; Lycurus to Muhlenbergia; Monanthochloe to Distichlis; Pleuraphis to Hilaria; Rhynchelytrum to Melinis. The following taxa (in genera not included here), recorded in California from historical collections or reported in literature, are extirpated, lacking vouchers, or not considered naturalized: Acrachne racemosa (Roth) Ohwi, Allolepis texana (Vasey) Soderstr. & H.F. Decker, Amphibromus nervosus (Hook. f.) Baill., Axonopus affinis Chase, Axonopus fissifolius (Raddi) Kuhlm., Coix lacryma-jobi L., Cutandia memphitica (Spreng.) K. Richt., Dinebra retroflexa (Vahl) Panz., Eremochloa ciliaris (L.) Merr., Eustachys distichophylla (Lag.) Nees, Gaudinia fragilis (L.) P. Beauv., Miscanthus sinensis Andersson, Neyraudia arundinacea (L.) Henrard, Phyllostachys aurea Rivière & C. Rivière, Phyllostachys bambusoides Siebold & Zuccarini, Rottboellia cochinchinensis (Lour.) Clayton, Schedonnardus paniculatus (Nutt.) Branner & Coville, Schizachyrium cirratum (Hack.) Wooton & Standl., Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash, Themeda quadrivalvis (L.) Kuntze, Thysanolaena latifolia (Hornem.) Honda, Tribolium obliterum (Hemsl.) Renvoize, Zea mays L., Zizania palustris L. var. interior (Fassett) Dore, Zoysia japonica Steud. Paspalum pubiflorum E. Fourn., Paspalum quadrifarium Lam., are now reported for southern California (J Bot Res Inst Texas 4:761–770). See Glossary p. 30 for illustrations of general family characteristics. —Scientific Editors: James P. Smith, Jr., J. Travis Columbus, Dieter H. Wilken.
Unabridged references: [Hitchcock 1951 Manual grasses US, USDA Misc Publ 200; Clayton & Renvoise 1986 Kew Bull Add Series 13]
Key to Poaceae
Perennial herb, generally cespitose. Stem: erect or bent, 2.5–10 dm. Leaf: sheath open, generally appendaged; ligule membranous; blade flat or rolled. Inflorescence: spike-like, axis not breaking apart at maturity; spikelets 1, 2-ranked, strongly overlapping, divergent or spreading. Spikelet: laterally compressed, glumes ± equal, < floret, lanceolate, 1–5-veined, keeled, acute to short-awned; florets 3–8; axis breaking above glumes and between florets; lemma 5–7-veined, keeled, acute to awned; palea ± = lemma; anthers 3, 3–5 mm.
12–15 species: Mediterranean, eastern Europe, central Asia. (Greek: field wheat, perhaps referring to a weed resembling wheat) [Barkworth 2007 FNANM 24:277–279] Siberian wheat grass, Agropyron fragile (Roth) P. Candargy, has also been reported for California, but is doubtfully naturalized; often used for soil stabilization on range and cropland.
Unabridged references: [Barkworth & Dewey 1985 Amer J Bot 72:767–776]
Occasionally rhizomatous. Stem: generally erect. Leaf: blade 3–12(20) cm, 1.5–6 mm wide, glabrous or pubescent. Inflorescence: 1.3–10 cm; internodes generally 1–5 mm, equal or not, glabrous or long-hairy; spikelets diverging at 30–95° angles. Spikelet: 7–16 mm; glumes 3–6 mm, generally 3-veined, generally awned, awns 1.5–3 mm; florets 3–8; lemma 5–9 mm, generally 5-veined, tip acute, generally awned, awn 1–6 mm.
2n=14,28,42. Disturbed areas, degraded agricultural sites; 600–1500 m. Klamath Ranges, Cascade Range Foothills, n High Sierra Nevada, s Outer South Coast Ranges, Southwestern California, Great Basin Floristic Province, Mojave Desert; most of North America; native to Europe, Mediterranean, Asia. [Agropyron cristatum subsp. desertorum (Link) Á. Löve; Agropyron desertorum (Link) Schult.] Used to rejuvenate burned or overgrazed areas. Jun–Aug [Online Interchange]
Unabridged synonyms: [Agropyron cristatum subsp. desertorum (Fisch. ex Link) Á. Löve; Agropyron desertorum (Fisch. ex Link) Schult.]
Previous taxon: Agropyron
Next taxon: Agrostis
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Dec 22 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Agropyron, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=49031, accessed on Dec 22 2014
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|Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Agropyron cristatum subsp. pectinatum|| Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).
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