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RHAMNACEAE BUCKTHORN FAMILY

John O. Sawyer, Jr., except as noted

[Perennial herb] shrub, tree, generally erect, often thorny. Leaf: simple, generally alternate, often clustered on short-shoots; stipules generally present, occasionally modified into spines; generally petioled; blade pinnate-veined or 1–5-ribbed from base. Inflorescence: cyme, panicle, umbel, or flowers 1 or clustered in axils or on short-shoots. Flower: generally bisexual, radial; hypanthium subtending, surrounding, or partly fused to ovary; sepals 4–5; petals 0, 4–5, generally clawed; stamens 0, 4–5, alternate sepals, attached to hypanthium top, each generally fitting into a petal concavity; disk (0 or) between stamens, ovary, thin to fleshy, entire or lobed, free from ovary, adherent or fused to hypanthium; ovary superior or ± inferior, chambers [1]2–4, 1–2-ovuled, style 1, stigma entire or 2–3-lobed. Fruit: capsule, drupe.
50–52 genera, 950 species: especially tropics, subtropics some cultivated (Ceanothus; Frangula; Rhamnus; Ziziphus). [Richardson et al. 2000 Amer J Bot 87:1309–1324] —Scientific Editors: Steve Boyd, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Brizicky 1965 J Arnold Arbor 45:439–463; Richardson et al. 2000 Kew Bull 55:311–341]

Key to Rhamnaceae

ZIZIPHUS
Tree, shrub [vine]. Stem: branches alternate, flexible or stiff, ± 2–3-ranked; twigs ± pendent, zigzag. Leaf: clustered on short-shoots or not, deciduous or not, petioled; stipules ± spine-like or not, unequal; blade elliptic to obovate, ± entire to serrate, 1–5-ribbed from base. Inflorescence: cyme or small panicle. Flower: hypanthium surrounding base of ovary; sepals 5; petals 5, < to > sepals; stamens 5; disk thick, ± obscuring ovary in early flower; ovary widely attached at base, chambers 2, each 1-ovuled, stigma 2-lobed. Fruit: drupe, stone 1.
100 species: generally tropics. (Latin: from Arabic "zizouf," common jujube, Ziziphus zizyphus) [Islam & Simmons 2006 Syst Bot 31:826–842]
Unabridged references: [Johnston 1963 Amer J Bot 50:1020–1027]

Key to Ziziphus

Z. zizyphus (L.) H. Karst. JUJUBE
NATURALIZED
Tree, < 12 m. Stem: bark gray to black, shaggy; twigs pendent, zigzag. Leaf: deciduous; blade 25–60 mm, elliptic to obovate, ± leathery, bright green, shiny adaxially, paler, dull abaxially, margin serrate. Inflorescence: 2–8-flowered clusters at nodes on twigs. Flower: hypanthium 2–2.2 mm wide, green; sepals < petals, both yellow; stamens < petals; pistil green. Fruit: Fleshy, red.
Occasional garden escape; 270 m. n Sierra Nevada Foothills, n Sacramento Valley; United States, Old World. [Ziziphus jujuba Mill.] Correct name could become Ziziphus jujuba Mill. May–Jul [Online Interchange]
Unabridged note: A proposal (1753; Kirkbride et al. 2006 Taxon 55:1049–1050) has been made to conserve Ziziphus jujuba against Ziziphus zizyphus, but until such time as that proposal is given final approval, the nomenclaturally correct name for Ziziphus jujuba Mill., nom. cons. prop. is Ziziphus zizyphus (L.) H. Karst. nom. rej. prop. Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. reported from California in error (USDA Plants Database).

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Oct 1 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Ziziphus, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=48939, accessed on Oct 1 2014

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Ziziphus zizyphus Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.