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Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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Annual, perennial herb, [small shrub, tree, vine], from caudices, taproots, rhizomes, or stolons; hairs 0 or simple. Stem: 0 or prostrate to erect. Leaf: basal, cauline, or both, alternate, [opposite], simple to compound, petioled; stipules generally small; blade linear to round, entire to toothed or lobed. Inflorescence: flowers 1 [raceme], axillary or scapose; peduncle bractlets 2, generally alternate. Flower: bisexual, bilateral [radial]; sepals 5, free, basal lobes present , generally not prominent; petals 5, free, lowest often largest, base ± elongated into a spur; stamens 5, alternate petals, filaments short, wide, with large in-pointing hairs, lowest 2 anthers with basal nectaries extending into petal spur; ovary superior, chamber 1, placentas parietal, 3, ovules  generally many, style 1, often enlarged distally, stigma often oblique or hooked, hairy or not. Fruit: capsule [berry], 3-valved, loculicidal, explosively dehiscent or not. Seed: generally with outgrowth, attractive to ants.
23 genera, 830 species: worldwide, generally temperate, tropics (especially higher elevations). [Munzinger & Ballard 2003 Syst Bot 28:345–351] Lengths of lowest petal including spur. —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Baird, V.B. 1942. Wild violets of North Am. University of California Press, Berkeley. Beattie, A. J. and N. Lyons. 1975. Seed dispersal in Viola (Violaceae):adaptations and strategies. Amer. J. Bot. 62: 714–722. Brainerd, E. 1921. Violets of North Am. Vermont Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. 224. Brizicky, G.K. 1961. The genera of Violaceae in the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arbor. 42: 321–333. Clausen, J. 1929. Chromosome number and relationship of some North American species of Viola. Annals of Botany. 43: 741–764. Clausen, J. 1964. Cytotaxonomy and distributional ecology of western North American violets. Madroño 17:173–197. Gershoy, A. 1928. Studies in North American violets. I. General considerations. Vermont Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. 279.]
Leaf: generally deciduous. Flower: sepals ± equal, entire; petals unequal, lowest generally largest, with spur generally < 3  mm, lateral 2 equal, generally spreading, upper 2 equal, erect or reflexed, overlapped or not, lateral 2 generally, others sometimes with beard of variously shaped hairs basally; cleistogamous flowers generally present, petals 0. Fruit: ovoid to oblong, hairy or not. Seed: 8–75.Key to Viola
± 500 species: temperate, worldwide, Hawaii, Andes. (Latin: classical name) Important orns including Viola odorata, Viola tricolor L. (Johnny-jump-up, wild pansy), Viola ×wittrockiana Gams (garden pansy).
Unabridged references: [Baker, M.S. 1949a. Studies in western violets. IV. Leafl. West. Bot. 5: 141–147; Baker, M.S. 1949b. Studies in western violets. VI; Madroño 10: 110–128; Baker, M.S. 1957. Brittonia 9: 217–230; Ballard, H.E. 1992. Systematics of Viola Section Viola in North Am north of Mexico. M.S. thesis, Central Michigan University, Mt. Pleasant, Michigan; Ballard, H.E. 1994. Violets of Michigan. Michigan Botanist 33: 131–199; Davidse, G. 1976. A study of some Intermountain violets (Viola Sect. Chamaemelanium). Madroño 23: 274–283; Fabijan et al. 1987. The taxonomy of the Viola nuttallii complex. Can. J. Bot. 65: 2562–2580; Gil-Ad, N.L. 1995. Systematics and evolution of Viola L. subsection Boreali Americanae (W. Becker) Brizicky. Ph.D. dissertation, Univ of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan; Gil-Ad, N.L. 1997. Systematics of Viola subsection Boreali-Americanae. Boissiera 53: 1–130; Hitchcock, C.L. 1961. Vasc. Plant. Pacific NorthW. Vol. 3; McKinney, L.E. 1992. A taxonomic revision of the acaulescent blue violets (Viola) of North Am. Sida Botanical Miscellany, 7: 1–59; McKinney, L.E. and N. Russell. 2002. Violaceae of the Southeastern United States. Castanea 4: 369–379; Russell, N.H. 1965. Violets (Viola) of the central and eastern United States: an introductory survey. Sida 1: 1–113]
Perennial herb 3–38 cm, glabrous or finely puberulent. Stem: erect, 1–3, green, from a thick, shallow, vertical or generally horizontal rhizome. Leaf: simple; basal 0–4 per caudex, petiole 7–27.5 cm, blade 3.3–8.5 cm, 2–9.3 cm wide, ovate to reniform or round, thin, crenate to serrate, ciliate or not, base cordate, tip acute to rounded; cauline only near stem tip, petiole 0.2–2.9 cm, blade 1.4–5.7 cm, 0.8–4.7 cm wide, ovate to deltate, thin, crenate to ± serrate, base cordate to truncate, tip generally acute. Inflorescence: from upper axils; peduncle 2–8 cm. Flower: sepals lance-linear, not ciliate; petals deep lemon-yellow on both surfaces, lower 3, sometimes upper 2, veined deep purple, lateral 2 bearded with cylindric hairs, lowest 6–18 mm. Fruit: 7–13 mm, ovate to elliptic, glabrous. Seed: ± 2 mm, shiny, pale brown.
2n=24. Moist to wet generally shady places in forest, streambanks, etc; < 2600 m. Northwestern California, Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada, Central Western California, Warner Mountains; to Alaska, Montana; Asia. Mar–Aug [Online Interchange]
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Next taxon: Viola hallii
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Oct 30 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Viola, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=48214, accessed on Oct 30 2014
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© 1988 Gary A. Monroe
|Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Viola glabella|| Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).
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