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Annual to shrub, some aquatic. Leaf: basal or cauline, alternate or opposite (whorled), simple, entire to dentate or lobed, venation generally pinnate; stipules 0. Inflorescence: raceme, spike, or flowers axillary in 1–few-flowered clusters; flowers few to many, each subtended by 1 bract. Flower: unisexual or bisexual, radial or bilateral; sepals 4–5, generally fused at base; corolla 4–5-lobed, scarious or not, persistent or not, generally 2-lipped, upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower generally 3-lobed, spur present or not, tube sac-like at base or not; stamens 2 or 4, alternate corolla lobes, epipetalous, staminode 0 or 1–2, anthers opening by 2 slits; ovary superior, 2–4-chambered, style 1, stigma lobes 0 or 2. Fruit: generally a capsule, septicidal, loculicidal, circumscissile, or dehiscing by terminal slits or pores.
110 genera, ± 2000 species: worldwide, especially temperate. [Angiosperm Phylogeny Group 1998 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 85:531–553; Olmstead et al. 2001 Molec Phylogen Evol 16:96–112] Veronicaceae sensu Olmstead et al. Recently treated to include Callitrichaceae, Hippuridaceae, and most non-parasitic California genera of Scrophulariaceae (except Buddleja, Limosella, Mimulus, Myoporum, Scrophularia, Verbascum). California Maurandya moved to Holmgrenanthe and Maurandella. Limnophila ×ludoviciana Thieret an occasional agricultural weed in rice fields. Hebe ×franciscana (Eastw.) Souster, Hebe speciosa (R. Cunn.) Andersen only cultivated. —Scientific Editors: Robert Patterson, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Key to Plantaginaceae
Annual, perennial herb. Stem: erect or prostrate. Leaf: cauline, opposite, sessile to short-petioled. Inflorescence: raceme, terminal or axillary, or flowers 1 in axils; bracts small, alternate. Flower: sepals generally 4(5), ± free, generally unequal; corolla ± radial, ± rotate, generally 4-lobed, tube << lobes, upper lobe wide (perhaps formed by fusion of upper pair), blue or violet to white; stamens 2, exserted; stigma unlobed. Fruit: flattened perpendicular to septum, generally obcordate, loculicidal and septicidal.Key to Veronica
± 250 species: northern temperate, especially Eurasia. (Named for Saint Veronica) Veronica beccabunga L., Veronica chamaedrys L. not in California; Veronica filiformis Sm., Veronica hederifolia L. occasionally as lawn weeds. Veronica biloba L., native to eastern Europe, Asia, a waif in southern Sierra Nevada Foothills, Modoc Plateau, differs from Veronica persica in ways including shorter styles (< 1 mm).
Unabridged references: [Albach et al. 2005 Amer J Bot 92:297–315; Olmstead et al. 2001 Amer J Bot 88:348–361]
Perennial herb, rhizomed, glabrous. Stem: generally decumbent, rooting at proximal nodes, simple to many-branched from base, 10–60(100) cm. Leaf: sessile (proximal rarely short-petioled); 20–80 mm, elliptic to ovate, length 1.5–3 × width, clasping to cordate, entire to serrate, light green. Inflorescence: racemes axillary, opposite, glabrous to ± glandular-puberulent; flowers generally > 30; bracts lance-linear; pedicels 4–8 mm, upcurved. Flower: sepals 3–5.5 mm, elliptic to ovate; corolla 5–10 mm, lavender to blue, violet-lined; style 1.5–3 mm. Fruit: 2.5–4 mm, at least as wide, rounded to obcordate. Seed: 0.5 mm, flat.
2n=18,36. Wet meadows, streambanks, slow streams; < 3000 m. California (uncommon D); widely naturalized in North America, South America; native to Europe. May–Sep [Online Interchange]
Previous taxon: Veronica americana
Next taxon: Veronica arvensis
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Jul 28 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Veronica, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=47942, accessed on Jul 28 2014
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