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Previous taxon Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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Dieter H. Wilken

Annual to shrub [tree], generally hairy. Leaf: cauline, opposite, generally toothed; stipules 0. Inflorescence: raceme, spike, or head, generally elongated in fruit; bract generally 1 per flower. Flower: bisexual; calyx generally 4–5-toothed; corolla 4–5-lobed, radial to bilateral, salverform to 2-lipped; stamens 4–5 (if 4, generally in unequal pairs), epipetalous; ovary superior, 2- or 4-lobed, generally 2- chambered, style 1, often with 2 unequal lobes, only 1 stigmatic, lateral. Fruit: 2 or 4 nutlets, drupe-like, or capsule.
± 31 genera, ± 920 species: especially America tropics. Some cultivated (Lantana, Verbena, Vitex); some weedy worldwide (Lantana); some used for wood (Tectona, teak). Avicennia included in Acanthaceae. [Marx et al. 2010 Amer J Bot 97:1647–1663] —Scientific Editor: Bruce G. Baldwin.

Key to Verbenaceae

Annual to perennial herb [shrub]. Stem: often 4-angled; hairs generally short, stiff. Leaf: reduced distally on stem; blade entire to pinnately lobed. Inflorescence: spike, often in panicle-like clusters, generally terminal, generally elongated in fruit. Flower: calyx 5-ribbed, 5-toothed, hairs generally strigose or appressed; corolla 4–5-lobed, generally ± radial, sometimes bilateral and 2-lipped; stamens 4; ovary 4-chambered, ovules 4, style 1, lobes 2, 1 tooth-like, 1 with ± spheric stigma. Fruit: nutlets 4, generally oblong.
± 250 species: temperate, tropical America, Mediterranean Europe. (Latin: ancient name) [Munir 2002 J Adelaide Bot Gard 18:21–103; Yeo 1990 Kew Bull 45:101–120; Yuan & Olmstead 2008 Molec Phylogen Evol 48:23–33] Verbena gooddingii, Verbena pulchella often placed in Glandularia (sister to Verbena in strictest sense).

Key to Verbena

V. litoralis Kunth
Biennial or perennial herb, 40–150+ cm. Stem: 1–few, erect, glabrous to sparsely short-bristly; angles smooth to scabrous. Leaf: 3–10 cm, elliptic to lanceolate, irregularly serrate, sparsely short-bristly, base ± acute; petiole generally 0. Inflorescence: spikes (1)3–11 per cluster, in fruit 3–7 cm, 3–4 mm diam, dense to open proximally (fruits overlapping or not); flower bract 3–3.5 mm. Flower: calyx 3–3.5 mm; corolla 4–5.5 mm, violet to ± purple. Fruit: 1–1.5 mm.
2n=28,56. Disturbed places, fields; < 200 m. n&c Sierra Nevada Foothills, Sacramento Valley, n San Joaquin Valley; to southern United States, Pacific; native to Central America, South America. May–Oct [Online Interchange]
Unabridged synonyms: [Verbena brasiliensis Vell.; Verbena litoralis var. brasiliensis (Vell.) Briq.]

Previous taxon: Verbena lasiostachys var. scabrida
Next taxon: Verbena menthifolia


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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Mar 30 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Verbena, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Mar 30 2015

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click for enlargement Verbena litoralis
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2000 Joe DiTomaso

Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Verbena litoralis Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.