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Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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Annual to shrub [tree], generally hairy. Leaf: cauline, opposite, generally toothed; stipules 0. Inflorescence: raceme, spike, or head, generally elongated in fruit; bract generally 1 per flower. Flower: bisexual; calyx generally 4–5-toothed; corolla 4–5-lobed, radial to bilateral, salverform to 2-lipped; stamens 4–5 (if 4, generally in unequal pairs), epipetalous; ovary superior, 2- or 4-lobed, generally 2- chambered, style 1, often with 2 unequal lobes, only 1 stigmatic, lateral. Fruit: 2 or 4 nutlets, drupe-like, or capsule.
± 31 genera, ± 920 species: especially America tropics. Some cultivated (Lantana, Verbena, Vitex); some weedy worldwide (Lantana); some used for wood (Tectona, teak). Avicennia included in Acanthaceae. [Marx et al. 2010 Amer J Bot 97:1647–1663] —Scientific Editor: Bruce G. Baldwin.
Key to Verbenaceae
Annual to perennial herb [shrub]. Stem: often 4-angled; hairs generally short, stiff. Leaf: reduced distally on stem; blade entire to pinnately lobed. Inflorescence: spike, often in panicle-like clusters, generally terminal, generally elongated in fruit. Flower: calyx 5-ribbed, 5-toothed, hairs generally strigose or appressed; corolla 4–5-lobed, generally ± radial, sometimes bilateral and 2-lipped; stamens 4; ovary 4-chambered, ovules 4, style 1, lobes 2, 1 tooth-like, 1 with ± spheric stigma. Fruit: nutlets 4, generally oblong.Key to Verbena
± 250 species: temperate, tropical America, Mediterranean Europe. (Latin: ancient name) [Munir 2002 J Adelaide Bot Gard 18:21–103; Yeo 1990 Kew Bull 45:101–120; Yuan & Olmstead 2008 Molec Phylogen Evol 48:23–33] Verbena gooddingii, Verbena pulchella often placed in Glandularia (sister to Verbena in strictest sense).
Perennial herb (sometimes flowering 1st year), 10–45 cm. Stem: 3–10+ from base, decumbent to erect; hairs soft, spreading. Leaf: 1–4 cm, lanceolate to ovate, obtusely toothed, short-soft-hairy; basal 3–5-lobed, tapered to ± flat petiole. Inflorescence: spike generally 1 per stem branch, in fruit 2–6 cm, 10–15 cm diam, dense; flower bract 4.5–6 mm. Flower: calyx 6–9.5 mm, hairs spreading; corolla 8–14 mm, purple-blue. Fruit: 2–3 mm.
2n=30. Sandy soils, washes, rocky slopes; 1200–2000 m. e Mojave Desert, ne Sonoran Desert; to Utah, northern Mexico. [Glandularia gooddingii (Briq.) Solbrig] Apr–Jun [Online Interchange]
Unabridged synonyms: [Verbena gooddingii var. nepetifolia Tidestr.]
Unabridged references: [Solbrig 1959 Madroño 15:50]
Previous taxon: Verbena californica
Next taxon: Verbena hastata
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Mar 8 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2012. Verbena, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=47861, accessed on Mar 8 2014
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