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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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Annual to woody perennial herb; roots generally fibrous. Stem: generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid. Leaf: alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear, parallel-veined; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base. Inflorescence: various (of generally many spikelets). Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1–many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally ± transparent, ± enclosed by lemma. Flower: generally bisexual, minute; perianth vestigial; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose. Fruit: grain, sometimes achene- or utricle-like.
650–900 genera; ± 10550 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials). [Barkworth et al. 2003 FNANM:25; Barkworth et al. 2007 FNANM:24] Generally wind-pollinated. Achnatherum, Ampelodesmos, Hesperostipa, Nassella, Piptatherum, Piptochaetium, Ptilagrostis moved to Stipa; Elytrigia, Leymus, Pascopyrum, Pseudoroegneria, Taeniatherum to Elymus; Hierochloe to Anthoxanthum; Lolium, Vulpia to Festuca; Lycurus to Muhlenbergia; Monanthochloe to Distichlis; Pleuraphis to Hilaria; Rhynchelytrum to Melinis. The following taxa (in genera not included here), recorded in California from historical collections or reported in literature, are extirpated, lacking vouchers, or not considered naturalized: Acrachne racemosa (Roth) Ohwi, Allolepis texana (Vasey) Soderstr. & H.F. Decker, Amphibromus nervosus (Hook. f.) Baill., Axonopus affinis Chase, Axonopus fissifolius (Raddi) Kuhlm., Coix lacryma-jobi L., Cutandia memphitica (Spreng.) K. Richt., Dinebra retroflexa (Vahl) Panz., Eremochloa ciliaris (L.) Merr., Eustachys distichophylla (Lag.) Nees, Gaudinia fragilis (L.) P. Beauv., Miscanthus sinensis Andersson, Neyraudia arundinacea (L.) Henrard, Phyllostachys aurea Rivière & C. Rivière, Phyllostachys bambusoides Siebold & Zuccarini, Rottboellia cochinchinensis (Lour.) Clayton, Schedonnardus paniculatus (Nutt.) Branner & Coville, Schizachyrium cirratum (Hack.) Wooton & Standl., Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash, Themeda quadrivalvis (L.) Kuntze, Thysanolaena latifolia (Hornem.) Honda, Tribolium obliterum (Hemsl.) Renvoize, Zea mays L., Zizania palustris L. var. interior (Fassett) Dore, Zoysia japonica Steud. Paspalum pubiflorum E. Fourn., Paspalum quadrifarium Lam., are now reported for southern California (J Bot Res Inst Texas 4:761–770). See Glossary p. 30 for illustrations of general family characteristics. —Scientific Editors: James P. Smith, Jr., J. Travis Columbus, Dieter H. Wilken.
Unabridged references: [Hitchcock 1951 Manual grasses US, USDA Misc Publ 200; Clayton & Renvoise 1986 Kew Bull Add Series 13]
Key to Poaceae
Annual, tufted. Stem: ascending to erect, 10–75 cm. Leaf: sheath, blade glabrous to ± hairy; ligule membranous, generally acute. Inflorescence: panicle-like, open or dense. Spikelet: bisexual, compressed; glumes unequal, < lemma, lower glume 3–7-veined, upper 3–9-veined; axis breaking above lower floret and between distal florets; florets 2–10; lemma ± leathery, lemma of lower florets short-awned or not; uppermost awned from back, awn bent.
5 species: southern Europe, northern Africa, western Asia. (E.P. Ventenat, French clergyman, botanist, 1757–1808) [Crins 2007 FNANM 24:683–684]
Unabridged references: [Chambers 1985 Madroño 32:120–121]
Stem: nodes purple-black, puberulent below nodes. Leaf: ligule 1–8 mm; blade 2–7(12) cm, 1–3 mm wide, rolled under with age. Inflorescence: generally 15–20 cm, open; branches spreading to drooping; spikelets near branch tips, stalked. Spikelet: 10–15 mm; glumes lanceolate, acuminate, lower 4.5–6 mm, 3–7-veined, upper 6–8 mm, 3–9-veined; florets 2 or 3, lowest generally staminate, lemma awn straight when present; upper 1 or 2 florets bisexual, lemma awn 1–1.5 cm.
2n=14. Dry, open disturbed sites; 500–1500 m. Klamath Ranges, High North Coast Ranges (Lake Co.), High Cascade Range, n High Sierra Nevada (Nevada Co.), Modoc Plateau; to Canada, northeastern United States; native to central and southern Europe. Mature specimens generally retain 1 floret after upper florets have broken away, which can lead to misinterpretation of the spikelet. Jun–Sep [Online Interchange]
Previous taxon: Ventenata
Next taxon: Zizania
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Aug 1 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Ventenata, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=47815, accessed on Aug 1 2014
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