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BERBERIDACEAE BARBERRY FAMILY

Michael P. Williams

Perennial herb, shrub, [tree], generally rhizomed, caudexed or not, glabrous, glaucous, or hairy. Stem: spreading to erect, branched or not. Leaf: simple, 1–3-ternate, or pinnately compound, basal and cauline, generally alternate, deciduous or evergreen, petioled, stipuled. Inflorescence: generally raceme, spike, or panicle, scapose, terminal, or axillary. Flower: generally bisexual, radial; sepals 6–18 or 0, generally in whorls of 3; petals generally 6, in 2 whorls of 3, or 0; stamens 6–12(13), free or fused at base, in 2 whorls or not, anthers dehiscent by flap-like valves or longitudinal slits; ovary superior, chamber 1, ovules generally 1–10, style 1 or 0, stigma flat or spheric. Fruit: berry, capsule, achene [follicle].
16 genera, ± 670 species: temperate, tropics worldwide; some cultivated (Berberis, Epimedium, Nandina (heavenly bamboo), Vancouveria). [Wang 2007 Syst Bot 32:731–742] Lower sepals sometimes called "bracteoles", inner petals "staminodes". —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Ernst 1964 J Arnold Arbor 45:1–35]

Key to Berberidaceae

VANCOUVERIA INSIDE-OUT-FLOWER
Perennial herb, rhizomes extensive, scales brown. Stem: 0. Leaf: basal, long-petioled, 2–3-ternate; leaflet blades ovate to ± cordate, lobes 3, shallow, teeth 0 or shallow. Inflorescence: raceme or panicle, ± scapose, open, long-peduncled; flowers spreading to pendent. Flower: sepals generally 12–15, 8–9 mm, outer 6–9 << inner 6, bract-like, deciduous, inner petal-like, persistent, in age reflexed; petals 6, < inner sepals, reflexed from base, distally glandular; stamens generally 6, held against ovary, style, anther valves flap-like, pointed tipward; ovules 2–10, style 1, < ovary, persistent, beak-like in fruit, stigma cup-like. Fruit: capsule, 2-valved, generally elliptic. Seed: with oily body for ant dispersal.
3 species: temperate western North America. (Captain George Vancouver, British explorer, 1757–1798) [Zhang 2007 Syst Bot 32:81–92] Pedicel appears to arise from inside flower, from tip instead of base, yielding an upside-down or "inside-out" flower.
Unabridged references: [Stearn 1938 J Linn Soc Bot 51:409–535]

Key to Vancouveria

V. planipetala Calloni REDWOOD IVY
NATIVE
Leaf: persistent in fruit, 10–30 cm, adaxially glabrous, abaxially glabrous to sparse-hairy; petiole sparse-hairy, in age glabrous, red-brown. Inflorescence: panicle; upper axis short-glandular-hairy: pedicel short-glandular-hairy in lower 1/3. Flower: outer sepals 2–4 mm, inner 4–5 mm; petals 3–4 mm, white or tinged lavender, tip flat, notched; filaments glabrous. Fruit: body 5–7 mm, glabrous.
2n=24. Coastal conifer forest; < 1550 m. Northwestern California (except Inner North Coast Ranges), San Francisco Bay Area, Outer South Coast Ranges (Santa Lucia Range); southwestern Oregon. Late Apr–Jul [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Apr 23 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2012. Vancouveria, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=47786, accessed on Apr 23 2014

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click for enlargement Vancouveria planipetala
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© Joseph Dougherty

Bioregions in which Vancouveria planipetala occurs Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.