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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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Perennial, shrub, [ tree], generally rhizomed, caudexed or not, glabrous, glaucous, or hairy.
Stem: spreading to erect, branched or not.
Leaf: simple, 1–3- ternate, or pinnately compound, basal and cauline, generally alternate, deciduous or evergreen, petioled, stipuled.
Inflorescence: generally raceme, spike, or panicle, scapose, terminal, or axillary.
Flower: generally bisexual, radial; sepals 6–18 or 0, generally in whorls of 3; petals generally 6, in 2 whorls of 3, or 0; stamens 6–12(13), free or fused at base, in 2 whorls or not, anthers dehiscent by flap-like valves or longitudinal slits; ovary superior, chamber 1, ovules generally 1–10, style 1 or 0, stigma flat or spheric.
Fruit: berry, capsule, achene [ follicle].
16 genera, ± 670 species: temperate, tropics worldwide; some cultivated (Berberis, Epimedium, Nandina (heavenly bamboo), Vancouveria). [Wang 2007 Syst Bot 32:731–742] Lower sepals sometimes called "bracteoles", inner petals "staminodes". —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Ernst 1964 J Arnold Arbor 45:1–35]
Key to Berberidaceae
Perennial, rhizomes extensive, scales brown.Key to Vancouveria
Leaf: basal, long-petioled, 2–3- ternate; leaflet blades ovate to ± cordate, lobes 3, shallow, teeth 0 or shallow.
Inflorescence: raceme or panicle, ± scapose, open, long-peduncled; flowers spreading to pendent.
Flower: sepals generally 12–15, 8–9 mm, outer 6–9 << inner 6, bract-like, deciduous, inner petal-like, persistent, in age reflexed; petals 6, < inner sepals, reflexed from base, distally glandular; stamens generally 6, held against ovary, style, anther valves flap-like, pointed tipward; ovules 2–10, style 1, < ovary, persistent, beak-like in fruit, stigma cup-like.
Fruit: capsule, 2-valved, generally elliptic.
Seed: with oily body for ant dispersal.
3 species: temperate w North America. (Captain George Vancouver, British explorer, 1757–1798) [Zhang 2007 Syst Bot 32:81–92] Pedicel appears to arise from inside flower, from tip instead of base, yielding an upside-down or "inside-out" flower.
Unabridged references: [Stearn 1938 J Linn Soc Bot 51:409–535]
Leaf: persistent in fruit, 10–30 cm, adaxially glabrous, abaxially glabrous to sparse-hairy; petiole sparse-hairy, in age glabrous, red-brown.
Inflorescence: panicle; upper axis short- glandular-hairy: pedicel short- glandular-hairy in lower 1/3.
Flower: outer sepals 2–4 mm, inner 4–5 mm; petals 3–4 mm, white or tinged lavender, tip flat, notched; filaments glabrous.
Fruit: body 5–7 mm, glabrous.
2n=24. Coastal conifer forest; < 1550 m. Northwestern California (except Inner North Coast Ranges), San Francisco Bay Area, Outer South Coast Ranges (Santa Lucia Range);
Previous taxon: Vancouveria hexandra
Next taxon: Betulaceae
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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|Bioregions in which taxon occurs||Red area (if present) is the part of the bioregion lying between the upper and lower elevation limits of the taxon;|
markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may have georeferencing or identification issues.
Chart based on elevation range in Manual and elevations and coordinates of CCH records.
Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
Note: About half of the CCH records include both elevation and coordinates.
|Map made in collaboration with Scott Loarie. Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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